swine production, animal population unit, water and soil pollution
Objective: To identify and estimate waste production, water consumption and production practices of backyard swine farms at the municipality of Tepetlán; Veracruz, Mexico, to foresee the possible influences on the environment and generate information that promotes new public environmental policies adapted to small producers.
Methodology: 36 backyard livestock production units were identified and studied in Vicente Guerrero and Alto Tío Diego by a census in which structured surveys were applied to obtain data; the results were analyzed by descriptive statistics. The maximum pollutant potential of the load with the installed infrastructure was estimated.
Results: We registered 503 swine heads of diverse zootechnical functions, mainly from the Landrace breed, in 36 studied farms, 54.7% of idle infrastructure was identified. We found that about three tons of excreta are produced per day between the towns of Vicente Guerrero and Alto Tío Diego, from which 78% are dumped into the municipal drainage. The average water consumption per unit of livestock production was 132.2 L
and for each unit of animal population 28.5 L, with a standard deviation of 32.2 L per animal population unit. This research also provides information on the feeding and production practices of the animals. It was possible to estimate the volume of swine excreta generated in the assessed localities. However, it is necessary to quantify organic matter, nitrogenous products, phosphorus, and total and fecal coliforms.
Conclusions: It is important to quantify and regulate the generated waste by this livestock activity, to take corrective and regulatory decisions, to establish solutions that protect natural resources without harming the economy of the small producer.