Agro Productividad 2024-05-28T18:39:47+00:00 Dr. Jorge Cadena Iñiguez [email protected] Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Agro Productividad</strong> es una publicación mensual del Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas. Fue fundada en 2008 con el objetivo de difundir resultados en artículos científicos originales, así como notas científicas, revisiones temáticas, relacionados con la agricultura (cultivos, silvicultura, ganadería, pesca y acuicultura, y agroindustria) y la producción de agroalimentos.</p> <p>También aborda temáticas sobre procesos económicos, sociales y ambientales que impactan la productividad agrícola y el desarrollo rural.</p> <p>Todas las contribuciones recibidas son sometidas a un proceso de arbitraje doble ciego y edición final. La revista se publica en español y en inglés. Se encuentra indexada a diferentes indicadores nacionales e internacionales resaltando <a title="CONACYT (Competencia Internaciona)" href=""><strong>CONACYT </strong>(Competencia Internacional)</a>,<a href=""><em> EBSCO</em></a>, <a href="">CENGAGE LEARNING</a>, INC., <a href=";user=BX46e5AAAAAJ">Google Académico</a> además de <a href="">Zoological Records</a> en <a href="">Master Journal List</a> de <a href="">Clarivate Analitycs</a> (antes ISI), <a href=";local_base=per01"><em>PERIODICA</em></a>-<a href="">Biblat</a>, <a href="">CABI</a> y <a href="">CAB Abstracts</a>, <a href="">Latindex (Directorio</a> y <a href="">Catálogo</a>), <a href="">REDIB</a>, <a href="">SIBDI</a>, <a href="">MIAR</a>, <a href=";and_facet_source_title=jour.1389419&amp;viz-st:aggr=mean">DIMENSIONS</a>, <a href="">CORE</a>,<a href=""> Scilit</a>, <a href=";cc=2394">AgEconSEARCH , </a><a href=";referer=brief_results">WordCat </a>, <a href=";refid=dctableen">BASE</a>, <a title="EBSCOhost (Fuente académica Plus)" href="">EBSCO<em>hos</em>t (Fuente académica Plus)</a> <a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href="">AURA</a>, <a href=";colors=7&amp;lang=de&amp;jq_type1=QS&amp;jq_term1=Agro+productividad">Electronic Journals Library (EZB)</a>, <a href="">Refseek</a>,<a href=""> OpenAire</a>, <a href=";view=full">ZEITSCHRIFT DATENBANK</a> y recientemente <a href=";rn=1">Jisc</a> y <a href="">scite.</a></p> Response of improved common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties to intermittent drought 2023-04-18T02:46:40+00:00 Marcial Fernández Rivera [email protected] <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate the response of 16 improved bean varieties to intermittent drought. <strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> A randomized complete block design was used, with four replications each under irrigated and drought conditions. The drought treatment consisted of suspending irrigation for 15 days in the flowering stage. The irrigation treatment consisted of maintaining available moisture above 60% throughout the cycle. The yield, its components, and days to physiological maturity were recorded. The drought tolerance of each variety was estimated using the drought susceptibility index, geometric mean, and productive mean.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Drought reduced yield by 36%, the number of pods per plant by 28.5%, and days to physiological maturity by 0.7%. In contrast, the weight of 100 seeds increased by 4.9% and the number of seeds per pod was not affected. The Flor de Mayo Eugenia and Negro 8025 varieties were more tolerant to drought (p ≤ 0.05) than the rest of the varieties analyzed. These varieties recorded yields of 2,768 and 2,854 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (irrigation) and 1,905 and 1,843 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (drought), respectively.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> The drought intensity applied was relatively low, which could reduce the visibility of the differences between treatments.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> The secondary attribute with more sensitivity to intermittent drought was the number of pods per plant. The varieties with highest tolerance to droughts were Flor de Mayo Eugenia and Negro 8025.</p> 2024-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Determination of geometric properties of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) 2023-05-02T15:58:48+00:00 Pedro García Alamilla [email protected] Aydee Tobias Baeza [email protected] Carlos Hugo Avendaño Arrazate [email protected] Ricardo García Alamilla [email protected] Areli Carrera Lanestosa [email protected] <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the linear physical dimensions of dried Mexican cocoa beans to estimate their geometric properties and differentiate them through a principal component analysis.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>For the research, 51 dry samples of cocoa beans (<em>Theobroma cacao</em> L.) were collected from three producer states in Mexico. The physical properties of cocoa beans were determined based on their linear dimensions: length, width, thickness, geometric diameter, sphericity, volume, and shape factor. Moisture, average weight, and ether extract were also determined.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results revealed the relation between linear and geometric properties, particularly the fact that bean weight is significant (p&lt;0.001) regarding all the properties evaluated, except moisture. Said relation explained 98.8% of the total variation in the first two components observed in the cocoa samples from the three states (Tabasco, Chiapas, and Oaxaca). Average bean weight, sphericity, and volume contributed the most to the total variation.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>The only quantitative variable that showed significance was bean weight. The other measurements—length, width, and thickness—did not. However, there was significance when coupling the measurements in the expressions of surface area and volume.</p> 2024-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Interspecific grafting of Pinus patula 2023-06-16T20:58:59+00:00 Benito González-Jiménez [email protected] Marcos Jiménez Casas [email protected] Javier López-Upton [email protected] Rodrigo Rodríguez-Laguna [email protected] <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the compatibility of <em>Pinus patula</em> grafts on rootstocks of seven pine species. <strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong><em> P. patula</em> scions were grafted on <em>P. greggii</em>,<em> P. teocote</em>,<em> P. pseudostrobus</em>, <em>P. cembroides</em>,<em> P. ayacahuite</em>,<em> P. hartwegii</em>, and<em> P. patula</em> rootstocks. The seven treatments were established in a randomized complete four block design; survival and growth were evaluated and recorded during the experiment.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>At eight months, <em>P. patula </em>and <em>P. teocote </em>rootstocks recorded the highest survival rate (35%), while no <em>P. cembroides</em> graft survived. .</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications: </strong>The rootstocks of <em>P.</em> <em>cembroides</em>, <em>P. hartwegii</em>, and <em>P.</em> <em>ayacahuite </em>were not compatible with <em>P. patula</em> grafting. This situation reduces the number of potential species that can be used to clone <em>P.</em> <em>patula</em> genotypes.<strong>Finding/Conclusions:</strong> The survival and graft growth were more successful on rootstocks of species phylogenetically closer to <em>P. patula</em>.</p> 2024-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Impact of Lippia palmeri S. Watson during kid suckling and growth 2023-06-24T03:20:15+00:00 EMANUEL JUNCO CARLON [email protected] Humberto González-Rodríguez [email protected] José A. Armenta-Quintana [email protected] Israel Cantú-Silva [email protected] Marco V. Gómez-Meza [email protected] Mauricio Cotera-Correa [email protected] Eduardo Estrada-Castillon [email protected] <p><strong>Objective</strong>: raising kids is a fundamental activity in goat production, since their development is the source of replacements for the dairy herd or the sale of meat. Therefore, the impact in the kids’ growth of adding <em>Lippia palmeri</em> S. Watson oregano to the goat diet was evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>a total of 17 kids born from mothers who consumed the four diets (treatments) were evaluated. They were divided as follows: 6 kids in T1 (ASINC with ORE); 5 kids in T2 (ASINC without ORE); 3 kids in T3 (SINC without ORE); and 3 kids in T4 (SINC with ORE). The weight gain (kg) and daily milk consumption (kg) variables were evaluated for 60 days.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> no significant differences were found (p&gt;0.05) between treatments, showing an average daily weight gain of 0.0895 ±0.018 kg in T1 (ASINC with ORE), 0.0892 ±0.026 kg in T2 (ASINC without ORE), 0.0934 ±0.035 kg in T3 (SINC without ORE), and 0.118±0.026 kg in T4 (SINC with ORE). Meanwhile, the average daily milk consumption was 0.509 ±0.240 kg in T1 (ASINC with ORE), 0.580±0.205 kg in T2 (ASINC without ORE), 0.553±0.190 kg in T3 (SINC without ORE), and 0.717±0.202 kg in T4 (SINC with ORE).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>no treatment was significantly higher than the others. A significant and positive correlation (r=0.879, p=0.0001) was detected between the two variables under study.</p> 2024-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Root density and accumulation of Myrobalan plum tree grafted with Methley Japanese plum 2023-07-17T19:18:02+00:00 J. S. González-Pérez [email protected] Alberto E. Becerril-Román [email protected] Abel Quevedo-Nolasco [email protected] D. Jaén-Contreras [email protected] C. Velasco-Cruz [email protected] <p>Ra</p> <p>Objective: to determine the root phenology of Myrobalan plum tree grafted with Methley Japanese plum. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> a quota sampling was used to select five trees from the experimental orchard. Within the volume of soil adjacent to tree´s roots, 330 cm<sup>3</sup> of soil were sampled and collected each month, in order to identify root type, quantify their fresh and dry weight, and carry out statistical analyses. <strong>Results:</strong>The highest densities of growing and absorbing roots were observed at 0-25 cm soil depth during the phenological cycle. A higher density of intermediate and conducting roots was recorded at 25-50 cm soil depth, just at the beginning of the ecodormancy. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> the highest root accumulation was recorded when moisture and soil temperature were not optimal but the cultivar did not record a significant vegetative and reproductive growth.</p> 2024-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Response of chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L.) to the fungi complex that causes wilt 2023-12-19T02:34:26+00:00 Carlos I. Cota-Barreras [email protected] Raymundo S. García-Estrada [email protected] Raúl Avalos-Castro [email protected] Elizabeth García-León [email protected] Milagros Ramírez-Soto [email protected] Rosalia López-Corrales [email protected] JUAN MANUEL TOVAR PEDRAZA [email protected] <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of the present study was to evaluate the response of 10 chickpea genotypes from INIFAP to the damage caused by the fungal complex.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Seedlings (15-day-old) of 10 genotypes (Blanco Sinaloa '92, Blanoro, Combo 743, CUGA2054, HOGA067, CUGA3168, CUGA08-1210, CUGA09-3160, R-12-1509 and R-12-1507) were inoculated by root immersion in a suspension of mycelial fragments of two isolates (high and low virulence) of each fungi: <em>Fusarium languescens</em>, <em>M. phaseolina</em>, <em>S. rolfsii</em> and <em>S. sclerotiorum</em>. Disease severity evaluation was performed 30 days after inoculation. The entire experiment was performed twice.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The genotypes showed greater susceptibility to <em>S. sclerotiorum</em> and <em>S. rolfsii</em> compared to <em>F. languescens</em> and <em>M. phaseolina</em>. The highly virulent isolates caused a significant difference in the severity of the disease in the genotypes evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>All chickpea genotypes showed susceptibility to the fungal complex that causes wilt.</p> 2024-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Effect of spontaneous micro-fermentation on the physicochemical characteristics of Theobroma cacao L. beans 2024-01-15T04:30:21+00:00 Biaani Beeu Martínez Valencia [email protected] Jorge Eduardo Carrizales Mérida [email protected] Juan Francisco Caballero Pérez [email protected] José Luis Solís Bonilla [email protected] <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of cacao beans during the spontaneous fermentation process in <em>tepemixtle</em> wooden boxes of three different sizes.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Trinitarian-type cacao (<em>Theobroma cacao</em> L.) fruits were collected in a commercial orchard. The beans were fermented in boxes with the following operating conditions: volume of cacao with pulp, box size, a six-day period, and uncontrolled temperature and pH. The experiments were carried out in triplicate and an analysis of variance and a multiple comparison of means were performed with the Tukey test (p&lt;0.05) using the R program.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The parameters evaluated had the same behavior in the 4 kg box than in the 25 kg box and the 60 kg box, which indicates that the physicochemical and quality characteristics of cacao beans are not impacted by the decrease in the box size. Therefore, smaller boxes are viable for small-scale fermentations.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> Only cacao beans from the Trinitarian genetic group were evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> Small-scale fermentations can be an option for the evaluation of varieties when the beans must be fermented for the sensory analysis of their qualitative attributes. This micro-fermentation methodology can also be incorporated into genetic improvement programs or the evaluation of the processes aimed at their optimization.</p> 2024-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Assessment of tepojal as a support medium in in vitro germination of Barkeria whartoniana (Orchidaceae) and subcultures of B. uniflora and B. scandens 2024-03-07T18:49:09+00:00 Paola E. Gómez-Almazán [email protected] Diego García-Meza [email protected] Eduardo A. Pérez-García [email protected] <p><strong>Objective: </strong>We evaluated the use of tepojal as a substitute for bacteriological agar for <em>in vitro</em> culture of three species of Mexican orchids of the genus <em>Barkeria</em>. We had three objectives: (1) evaluate the use of tepojal for the in vitro germination of <em>B. whartoniana</em> seeds; (2) compare the growth and survival of <em>B. uniflora</em> and <em>B. scandens </em>plants in <em>in vitro</em> culture on bacteriological agar and tepojal, and (3) compare the early <em>ex situ</em> survival of the <em>B. uniflora</em> and <em>B. scandens</em> previously cultivated <em>in vitro</em> on bacteriological agar and tepojal.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> For the growth experiment, 1,050 seedlings of <em>Barkeria scandens</em> and <em>B. uniflora</em> were used. Two types of culture medium were prepared: (1) Liquid with tepojal and 40 % MS medium with dextrose, yeast, coconut water, activated carbon and refined sugar, and (2) solid at 40 %, with the same elements as the liquid one, but with 6 g of bacteriological agar. For the germination experiment of <em>Barkeria whartoniana</em> in tepojal we use seeds from a mature (open) capsule. After disinfection, seeds were sown in tepojal with liquid medium and in a solid (agar) culture using a syringe technique. All the seeds were sown in 100 % p668 MS medium with 100 mL/L of coconut water and 15 g/L of refined sugar and using in both the MS medium.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> <em>Barkeria uniflora</em> seedlings had a greater growth than in <em>B. scandens</em> regardless of the type of treatment. When comparing within each species, we found that the two treatments (tepojal vs agar) did not produce differences in the growth of the shoot of both species. Roots growth was influenced by both the effect of the species and the treatment, as the longest roots were found in tepojal medium. Seed germination observed in the liquid medium with tepojal was not apparently different from that in agar. In both cases the entire surface of the jar was covered with green protocorms.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> Tepojal did function well as a substrate to germinate <em>Barkeria whartoniana</em>, but tests must continue to be carried out to evaluate its effectiveness. As no differences were found for aerial growth between agar and tepojal in <em>Barkeria scandens</em> and <em>Barkeria uniflora</em>, we consider this substrate as a good substitute for agar because it can produce more biomass per gram of culture medium used; therefore, if we consider the costs the use of tepojal is much cheaper and much easier to get.</p> 2024-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Physical and physiological quality of oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Turquesa) seeds 2024-05-14T18:05:10+00:00 Pablo A. Domínguez-Martínez [email protected] Sergio I. Mendoza-Pedroza [email protected] Arturo Pro-Martínez [email protected] Glafiro Torres-Hernández [email protected] Humberto Vaquera-Huerta [email protected] José I. Alejos-de la Fuente [email protected] <p><strong>bjective:</strong> The objective of this study was to determine the physical and physiological quality of a batch of oat (<em>Avena sativa</em> L. cv. Turquesa) seeds.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> The following physical quality variables were evaluated: seed purity, weight of a thousand seeds, volumetric weight, and moisture content. Physiological quality was evaluated through a germination and emergence speed test, which also was used to measure seed vigor. A completely randomized experimental design, with factorial arrangement, and four repetitions was used. The factors analyzed were seed size (small and large) and aging (with and without aging).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The following results were recorded: 99.52% seed purity; 34.31 g weight of a thousand seeds; 54.80 kg hl<sup>-1</sup> volumetric weight; and 6.50% moisture content. Regarding treatment germination, no significant differences were found between the seed size and the size × aging interaction (P = 0.422). The aging treatment reduced germination from 96.50% (unaged seeds) to 89.25% (aged seeds). The emergence speed did not show significant differences regarding seed size (P = 0.066) and size × aging interaction (P = 0.868). The aging treatment had a negative impact on the emergence rate. The aged seeds emerged at a 15.55 plants d<sup>-1</sup> speed, while unaged seeds reached a 17.88 plants d<sup>-1</sup> speed. <strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> This study only evaluated one batch of oat seeds. <strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> The seeds have an adequate physical and physiological quality to establish oat crops. In addition, the seed batch was highly vigorous, because it maintained &gt;80% germination rate after the aging treatment.</p> 2024-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad In vitro, in situ, and in vivo evaluation of a sesame paste supplement for grazing calves 2024-05-14T18:06:22+00:00 Antonio González-Jesús [email protected] Paulino Sánchez-Santillán [email protected] Nicolás Torres-Salado [email protected] Jerónimo Herrera-Pérez [email protected] Luis Alaniz-Gutiérrez [email protected] Marco Antonio Ayala-Monter [email protected] <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To carry out an <em>in vitro</em>, <em>in situ</em>, and <em>in vivo</em> evaluation of soybean paste (T1) and sesame paste (T2) supplements for calves under grazing conditions.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Partial (24, 48, and 72 h) and accumulated biogas and methane production, as well as dry matter degradation (DMD), were measured in the <em>in vitro</em> analysis. The digestibility kinetics parameters (a, b, a+b, c, k, ED) were estimated in the <em>in situ</em> test. Feed supplement consumption (SC), daily weight gain (DWG), bacterial and protozoan populations, acetate, propionate, and butyrate were evaluated in the <em>in vivo</em> test. A completely randomized experimental design was used.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> T1 produced a higher amount of partial and accumulated biogas and methane at 24 h, as well as the highest values in the b, a+b, k, and ED (p ≤ 0.05) parameters. Meanwhile the rest of the <em>in vitro</em>, <em>in situ</em>, and <em>in vivo</em> variables did not record any differences between treatments (p &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> The production of sesame paste is seasonal; consequently, its harvest limits its year-round availability.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Based on the <em>in vitro</em>, <em>in situ</em>, and <em>in vivo</em> evaluations, sesame paste is a feasible option to replace soybean paste as a source of protein, in the supplementation of calves in the tropics.</p> 2024-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Scientific research on exotic and native fish farming in Mexico: a sci-entometric view. 2024-05-14T18:07:20+00:00 Karen N. Nieves-Rodríguez [email protected] Olimpia Chong-Carrillo [email protected] Martín A. Aréchiga-Palomera [email protected] Omar A. Peña-Almaraz [email protected] David J. Palma-Cancino [email protected] Manuel A. Vargas-Ceballos [email protected] Liza D. Kelly-Gutiérrez [email protected] Daniel Badillo-Zapata [email protected] Fernando Vega-Villasante [email protected] <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To analyze through a scientometric study, the research effort in Mexico on the study of native and exotic fish species with aquaculture production technology, indexed in Scopus.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Fish species were selected based on a previous study and communications with researchers. Scientific articles from 1990 to 2023 were collected from the Scopus database, focusing on studies conducted by Mexican institutions. Data were transferred to Excel® sheets for analysis, including number of publications, topics, institutions, funding sources and open access documents.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The species that shows the greatest number of articles published is <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>, although there is a clear interest in addressing studies on native species.&nbsp; In general, scientific production is led by institutions such as UNAM, IPN, UABC, CIAD and CIBNOR. The dominant topics are aquaculture, ecology, biochemistry, immunology, and parasitology. CONAHCYT is the main source of funding. About half of the publications were open access.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>The study is limited to the Scopus database, which is the one that includes the largest number of journals worldwide. However, by not including other databases the results could have a slight bias, although we do not consider that the trends changed significantly.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>Fish research in Mexico shows a positive outlook, with great interest in several species. However, it faces challenges such as the concentration of effort on exotic species, and the impact of the pandemic on research. A balanced approach is needed to encourage research on native species and facilitate open access to scientific information. This will strengthen fish research in Mexico and enhance its impact on the development of the country.</p> 2024-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Socio-agronomic characterization of agricultural farmers that survive in the community of San Diego, Texcoco 2023-06-11T05:28:23+00:00 Jesús Daniel Castro Lastra [email protected] Julio Sánchez-Escudero [email protected] Diego Flores-Sánchez [email protected] Cesáreo Rodríguez-Hernández [email protected] <p><strong>Objective: </strong>to characterize farmers who still grow food in the San Diego community through knowledge of their agricultural production systems.</p> <p><strong>Design/ Methodology/ Approach: </strong>field visits and tours were carried out to the farmers' plots to obtain information that would allow the design of a questionnaire for the agronomic and social classification of farmers in San Diego. The questionnaire was applied to 26 of them; who narrated some historical facts about their survival in food production.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> most of the farmers interviewed are on average 55 years old, have a level of education equal to or higher than middle school, have three economic dependents, use the yoke for tilling their soils and hybrid seed. Likewise, they apply organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizers to their plots for the growth of crops, for the control of pests and diseases they use agrochemicals; and the control of weeds is done manually, supplying water for the crops through gravity irrigation.</p> <p><strong>Study limitations/ Implications:</strong> this research was conducted during the CovID-19 pandemic. For this reason, only 26 farmers could be located. Most of them were at home.</p> <p><strong>Findings/ Conclusions</strong>: in the community of San Diego, two types of farmers can be identified, those who carry out practices related to conventional agriculture, and others who maintain traditional practices, but combine them with conventional agriculture.</p> 2024-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Fruits and seed characteristics of chihua squash (Cucurbita argyrosperma Huber.) accessions from Yucatan, Mexico 2023-07-18T17:40:01+00:00 María Alma Rangel-Fajardo [email protected] Jorge Ismael Tucuch Haas [email protected] Antonio Villalobos González [email protected] Johnny Abraham Burgos Díaz [email protected] <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate some fruit and seed characteristics of six chihua squash genotypes obtained in the Yucatan Peninsula.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> Six collections of <em>Cucurbita argyrosperma</em> Huber, obtained in the Yucatan Peninsula, were evaluated in a randomized complete block design for two years. The number of fruits per plot, fruit weight and size, seed weight and number of total, empty and full-filled seeds per fruit were quantified, and degrees Brix of the pulp.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Differences in fruit production were found between collections. The dominant fruit size was medium, fruits between 500 and 999 g, with the Chetumal collection standing out, while the variables of seed weight and number of seeds were affected between collections and between years, because of low rainfall during the production cycle of the second year. All collections recorded a reduction in weight and an increase in the number of empty seeds. Slight variations were identified in the concentration of degrees Brix of the pulp, with the Chetumal collection standing out above the rest.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The evaluated collections present variability within them, which can be useful to select materials for different purposes and to obtain more benefits from this crop</p> 2024-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Diagnosis and distribution of Citrus tristeza virus in northern Veracruz, Mexico 2023-10-15T16:54:14+00:00 Angel Villegas-Monter [email protected] Baldomero Alarcon-Zuniga [email protected] Rosalba Contreras Maya [email protected] <p><strong>Objective: </strong>of the research was to know the incidence of CTV to try to associate it with the yellowing and death of citrus trees. <strong>Design/ Methodology/ Approach: </strong>the presence of the virus was diagnosed in seven citrus-producing municipalities in northern Veracruz. A total of 804 samples from citrus trees were collected in 90 locations belonging to the municipalities of Álamo, Castillo de Teayo, Cazones, Chicontepec, Ixhuatlán, Papantla and Tihuatlán. <strong>Results: </strong>out of all the samples, 380 were positive for CTV; 68% corresponded to attenuated variants and 40% to severe variants. The following symptoms were observed in all the municipalities: death of branches (68%), yellowing of shoots (41%), trees with small leaves (38%), and debarking of the trunk (32%); the incidence of small fruits was 31%, and finally, generalized yellowing (19%). <strong>Limitations/ Implications of the study: </strong>to manage the disease there are various alternatives, the most frequent is the use of tolerant rootstocks, however, with the existence of severe variants there may be tree deaths even with tolerant rootstocks, so it is necessary to search for and implement other far-reaching options. <strong>Findings/ Conclusions:</strong> the results show that even with the regulations for the production and mobilization of plants, the virus is widely distributed in the seven municipalities of northern Veracruz.</p> 2024-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Current challenges and forecasts in maize grain production and consumption in Mexico 2023-11-14T13:01:02+00:00 JAVIER MEDINA HERNÁNDEZ [email protected] IGNACIO CAAMAL CAUICH [email protected] VERNA GRICEL PAT FERNÁNDEZ [email protected] JOSÉ ANTONIO ÁVILA DORANTES [email protected] <p><strong>Objective: </strong>to analyze production and consumption of maize grain in Mexico, with time series and recurrent neural networks, to describe the present and future situation of maize cultivation.</p> <p><strong>Design/ Methodology/ Approach: </strong>key variables were analyzed in graphs and maps created in Excel<sup>®</sup> and SCImago Graphica<sup>®</sup>, respectively. Forecasts for the year 2050 were obtained in Python<sup>©</sup> with Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) of the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) type, and were compared with the years 1980 and 2020.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>the largest production of white and yellow maize grain was obtained by the United States and China. Mexico ranks seventh, is not competitive in exports, and relies on imports of yellow maize grain from the United States to supply demand. The Mexican states that implemented technology packages showed higher yields and production. By 2050, maize grain production in Mexico will increase due to the technological advances of Agriculture 5.0 Although it would not be enough to supply the apparent consumption of the growing population, for this reason imports will increase.</p> <p><strong>Limitations/ Implications of the study:</strong> analysis of the possible future, created from time series through RNN-LSTM, helps to guide decision-making in the present.</p> <p><strong>Findings/ Conclusions:</strong> new agricultural public policies are needed to guide, in the long term, the challenges of maize grain production and consumption in Mexico to guarantee food sovereignty.</p> 2024-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Sampling unit and optimal sample size for the detection of Aeneolamia albofasciata (Lallemand) eggs in sugarcane 2023-11-27T02:23:56+00:00 Juan Antonio Villanueva Jiménez [email protected] José Jair Canela Cantellano [email protected] Héctor Cabrera Mireles [email protected] José López Collado [email protected] Luis Gabriel Otero Prevost [email protected] <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To compare the efficiency of a 30x30x5 cm iron sampling frame (Frame30) with a smaller 15x15x5 cm one (Frame15), as sampling method for spittlebug eggs [(<em>Aenolamia albofasciata </em>(Lallemand)] that reduces the amount of soil removed, optimizes time used, and reduces the sampling effort.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> Mean, variance, coefficient of variation, sampling effort, spatial arrangement, and sample size were determined with both sampling frames. Forty systematic soil samples were obtained using each frame in two plots planted with the variety MEX 69-290, and two others with MEX 91-662. Each soil sample was mixed and homogenized to obtain a subsample of 250 g, from which eggs were extracted by decantation in saline solution.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Both frames estimated different numbers of eggs in the four plots ( ) (Frame15: 2.71±1.71; 3.49±1.81; 2.74±2.08; 4.44±2.22; Frame30: 4.42±3.58; 6.65±3.92; 4.40±3.45; 7.84±4.54). Significant differences were found between sampling frames (P&lt;0.0001) and between plots (P&lt;0.0001), but not in the plot-sampling frame interaction (P=0.1509). The optimal sample size (accuracy 0.1) was smaller with Frame15 (40, 27, 57 and 25), compared to Frame30 (65, 34, 61 and 34). Both frames estimated a conglomerated spatial arrangement of eggs using three methods.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>This study suggests changing the sampling frame used in Veracruz, Mexico, for a smaller, more efficient one.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>Frame15 reduced by 75% the soil removed, provided more accurate population estimates, and simplified field and laboratory management, compared with Frame30.</p> 2024-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Yield, quality, and phytochemicals of two strawberry cultivars in response to foliar calcium nanofertilization 2024-01-07T23:29:06+00:00 Maria Noemi Frias Moreno [email protected] Rafael A. Parra-Quezada [email protected] Guadalupe I. Olivas-Orozco [email protected] Juan L. Jacobo-Cuéllar [email protected] Oscar Cruz-Álvarez [email protected] María N. Frías-Moreno [email protected] <p><strong>Objective:</strong> to evaluate the foliar application of Calcium (Ca<sup>2+</sup>) nanofertilizer on the yield, fruit quality, total phytochemicals and capacity of two strawberry cultivars 'Monterrey' and 'Albion' of <em>Fragaria x annanassa</em> Duch.</p> <p><strong>Design/ Methodology/ Approach:</strong> three foliar calcium treatments were established (two commercial foliar fertilizers, one nanofertilizer). The doses used were 2.5, 5 and 7 mEq L<sup>-1</sup> and were applied at the stages of beginning of flowering, full flowering, end of flowering, fruit setting and full production. The design of the experiment was randomized blocks in four replicates, each replicate consisted of a 1 m<sup>2</sup> area, with 16 plants. An analysis of variance was performed and the Tukey´s test (p≤0.05) was applied for comparison of means.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> the results indicated that doses of 2.5 mEq L<sup>-1</sup> for the 'Monterrey' cultivar and 5 mEq L<sup>-1</sup> for the 'Albion' cultivar favored increases in total phenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity and higher yields, by obtaining 13 kg m<sup>-2</sup> and 12.59 kg m<sup>-2</sup> from those cultivars, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Findings/ Conclusions:</strong> this indicates that the use of nano-calcium as a foliar fertilizer could be a suitable alternative that helps improving the bioactive compounds and yields of strawberry fruits.</p> 2024-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Milking to 2030: economic and sustainability prospective of the Mexican dairy sector 2024-02-24T23:16:51+00:00 Nathaniel Alec Rogers-Montoya [email protected] José Guadalupe Herrera-Haro [email protected] Nicolás Callejas-Juárez [email protected] María del Rosario Villavicencio-Gutiérrez [email protected] Gabriela Berenice Vilchis-Granados [email protected] Vianey González-Hernández [email protected] Rodrigo González-López [email protected] Monica Elizama Ruiz-Torres [email protected] Francisco Ernesto Martínez-Castañeda [email protected] <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aims to assess the productive and economic performance of the Mexican milk sector, particularly focusing on small and medium-scale dairy farms, and examining pessimistic, base, and optimistic scenarios.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Employing a statistical univariate method with time series analysis (ARIMA), we analyzed productive efficiency and price behavior in Mexican dairy systems. Deterministic and stochastic estimations for production volume, milk price, and cattle inventory from 2021 to 2030 were established using confidence intervals to construct pessimistic (lower interval), base (mean), and optimistic (upper interval) scenarios.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The evaluated period witnessed an estimated 10.27% increase in production, equivalent to 576 million liters of milk, with an average annual growth rate of 1.0922%. Milk prices displayed an upward trend, with average prices of $0.66, $0.69, and $0.72 under pessimistic, base, and optimistic scenarios, respectively. In 2030, a 22% price increase compared to 2021 was observed. Considering a base price of $0.45 USD per liter in 2030, costs under pessimistic, base, and optimistic scenarios were $1,658.21, $1,756.43, and $1,855.31, resulting in profits of $1,160.75, $1,229.50, and $1,022.45 from milk sales. Cattle inventory exhibited an upward trend, paralleling milk volumes and prices.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>The study's use of a univariate method may incompletely capture market dynamics complexity, potentially underestimating the impact of external market forces and global economic conditions on milk prices.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> To secure forecasted milk volumes in base and optimistic scenarios, maintaining and enhancing good management practices is crucial. Additionally, addressing the imperative to augment production efficiency and improve environmental sustainability and animal welfare is essential.</p> 2024-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Bioremediation alternatives for total petroleum hydrocarbon removal in agricultural soil 2024-03-13T16:05:56+00:00 E. Hernández-Acosta [email protected] E. García-Gallegos [email protected] <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of the present study is to highlight the importance of assessing bioremediation and total petroleum hydrocarbon removal by bioaugmentation and biostimulation on the rhizosphere.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>An 89-day experiment was established with treatments considering plant (corn) establishment–crude petroleum (25,000 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>)–bacteria and hydrocarbonoclastic fungi–adding nitrogen and phosphorus to agricultural soil. At the end of the experiment, hydrocarbonoclastic fungal and bacterial populations and total petroleum hydrocarbon removal were assessed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Both microbial groups increased in number and time. The treatment with 120 kg nitrogen ha<sup>-1</sup> and 12.5 kg phosphorus ha<sup>-1</sup> allowed the highest population (227 x 10<sup>3</sup> g<sup>-1 </sup>of colony forming units (CFU) of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria). A total of 83% petroleum hydrocarbon removal was obtained as established in 89 days.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>The effectiveness of bioremediation can vary significantly in real environments due to factors, such as soil variability, climate.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> The previous results highlight the importance of using these bioremediation techniques to eliminate hydrocarbons in contaminated agricultural soils.</p> 2024-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Scientific research on exotic and native mollusk farming in Mexico ac-cording to SCOPUS 2024-05-28T18:39:47+00:00 Olimpia Chong-Carrillo [email protected] Martín A. Aréchiga-Palomera [email protected] Omar A. Peña-Almaraz [email protected] Karen N. Nieves-Rodríguez [email protected] David J. Palma-Cancino [email protected] Liza D. Kelly-Gutiérrez [email protected] Daniel Badillo-Zapata [email protected] Manuel A. Vargas Ceballos [email protected] Fernando Vega-Villasante [email protected] <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of this study was to evaluate scientific productivity in this field through the database deposited in SCOPUS for Mexico. <strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>The genera and species of mollusks, currently cultivated or with cultivation potential, marine and freshwater, native and exotic, that have been studied are identified. The SCOPUS search was performed using the scientific name of the corresponding species in the publication title. The number of publications, the institutions that generated them, the SCOPUS theme of the study and the research funders were obtained.<strong> Results: </strong>There is an uneven growth, with a greater focus on abalone and octopus, while the genus Crassostrea, particularly the species <em>C. gigas</em>, leads the production of scientific articles. CIBNOR and IPN are the most relevant institutions in scientific production in molluscan aquaculture in Mexico. <strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>Despite the interest, advances in areas such as physiology, nutrition and reproduction have not been translated into efficient culture technologies in most cases. <strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>These findings highlight the need to promote research and technological development in the aquaculture of native mollusks in Mexico, as well as to promote collaboration between academic research institutions and the production sector to overcome the challenges in the culture of these species</p> 2024-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Current status of the global production chain of giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) 2023-03-25T02:56:18+00:00 Karla Teresa González Figueroa [email protected] Juan L. Reta-Mendiola [email protected] Alberto Asiain-Hoyos [email protected] Verónica Lango-Reynoso [email protected] Felipe Gallardo-López [email protected] <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the current state of the global production chain of <em>Macrobrachium rosenbergii</em>, identifying its links and the characteristics of the techniques used.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Studies over a period of 20 years (2001-2022) about the production chain of <em>M.</em><em> rosenbergii</em> were reviewed and analyzed. The information was synthesized in tables and the most relevant production and farming data are offered as an output.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The following links of the production chain were identified: production, processing, and commercialization. The <em>Macrobrachium rosenbergii</em> farming and the main technologies used to improve its production are described.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> There is limited systemic information about the <em>M. rosenbergii</em> production chain. The topics addressed the specifics of production, processing, and marketing.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> To improve the <em>M. rosenbergii</em> production chain, the following aspects must be guaranteed: the supply of post-larvae (PL) specimens, the development of better monoculture practices, and its integration with other species of commercial importance. The organization of the production chain must also be reviewed, considering its direct and indirect participants.</p> 2024-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Agrochemicals and crop productivity losses 2023-07-14T03:10:47+00:00 Alberto Julian Valencia Botin [email protected] Florentina Zurita-Martínez [email protected] Allan Tejeda-Ortega [email protected] Samuel Cruz‑Esteban [email protected] <p><strong>Objective: </strong>to reflect briefly on the importance of the use of agrochemicals in the productivity of some crops according to their contribution to yield, and some implications of their agricultural consumption.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>based on related literature and some experiences in the field on the use and consumption of pesticides.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>pesticides are synthetic, microbial, or derived organic compounds used in plant growth programs to prevent or control pests, diseases, and weeds. Also, mineral nutrition (with macro and micronutrients) is considered as agrochemicals. However, the effects on the contamination of soils, groundwater, lakes, seas, and oceans due to its use is increasing. Mexico is a large consumer of fungicides, insecticides, fertilizers, and herbicides for agricultural uses.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>unmeasured use of any type of pesticide can produce tons of pesticide-trash. Some traces of active or inert ingredients can be detected in bodies of water.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>the constant risk of agronomic yield losses can be substantial without the use of agrochemicals. Without the application of pesticides, yield losses can reach 100%.</p> 2024-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Biofortification of forages through the application of selenium nano-particles 2023-11-23T00:39:43+00:00 K. Escalona-Tenorio [email protected] Gabriela Medina-Pérez [email protected] I. Morales-Rodríguez [email protected] L.N. Afanador-Barajas [email protected] C. López-Palestina [email protected] S. Pérez-Ríos [email protected] <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This review paper examines the application of nanoparticles in agriculture, through biofortification with Se NPs in plants. <strong>Methodology:</strong> A comprehensive review of the literature on the use of Se NPs in plant biofortification was made. <strong>Results:</strong> According to documented studies, the foliar application of NPs significantly improves the morphological and physicochemical characteristics of plants. They promote root development, plant growth and increase the content of raw protein and ether extract in forages. An increase in the production of amino acids and essential fatty acids is also observed. <strong>Limitations:</strong> The findings are promising, but there is still slight research on how NPs affect the environment and the safety of their use in the food chain. Further studies are needed to fully understand the long-term effects. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The application of Se NPs for biofortification can improve the nutritional quality of forages, contributing to more efficient and sustainable livestock production. However, to ensure the safety of its implementation it is necessary to continue investigating.</p> 2024-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad