Agro Productividad https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad <p><strong>Agro Productividad</strong> es una publicación mensual del Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas. Fue fundada en 2008 con el objetivo de difundir resultados en artículos científicos originales, así como notas científicas, revisiones temáticas, relacionados con la agricultura (cultivos, silvicultura, ganadería, pesca y acuicultura, y agroindustria) y la producción de agroalimentos.</p> <p>También aborda temáticas sobre procesos económicos, sociales y ambientales que impactan la productividad agrícola y el desarrollo rural.</p> <p>Todas las contribuciones recibidas son sometidas a un proceso de arbitraje doble ciego y edición final. La revista se publica en español y en inglés. Se encuentra indexada a diferentes indicadores nacionales e internacionales resaltando <a title="CONACYT (Competencia Internaciona)" href="http://www.revistascytconacyt.mx/index.php/revistas/resultado/461"><strong>CONACYT </strong>(Competencia Internacional)</a>,<a href="https://www.ebsco.com/"><em> EBSCO</em></a>, <a href="https://latam.cengage.com/">CENGAGE LEARNING</a>, INC., <a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=es&amp;user=BX46e5AAAAAJ">Google Académico</a> además de <a href="https://clarivate.libguides.com/webofscienceplatform/zr">Zoological Records</a> en <a href="https://mjl.clarivate.com/">Master Journal List</a> de <a href="https://clarivate.com/">Clarivate Analitycs</a> (antes ISI), <a href="http://periodica.unam.mx/F?func=find-b-0&amp;local_base=per01"><em>PERIODICA</em></a>-<a href="https://biblat.unam.mx/es/">Biblat</a>, <a href="https://www.cabdirect.org/">CABI</a> y <a href="http://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/management/settings/cabdirect.org">CAB Abstracts</a>, <a href="https://www.latindex.org/latindex/Solar/Busqueda">Latindex (Directorio</a> y <a href="https://www.latindex.org/latindex/Solar/Busqueda">Catálogo</a>), <a href="https://www.redib.org/">REDIB</a>, <a href="http://sibdi.ucr.ac.cr/">SIBDI</a>, <a href="http://miar.ub.edu/">MIAR</a>, <a href="https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?or_facet_source_title=jour.1389419&amp;and_facet_source_title=jour.1389419&amp;viz-st:aggr=mean">DIMENSIONS</a>, <a href="https://core.ac.uk/data-providers/14738">CORE</a>,<a href="https://www.scilit.net/journal/4149474"> Scilit</a>, <a href="https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/search?ln=en&amp;cc=2394">AgEconSEARCH , </a><a href="https://www.worldcat.org/title/agroproductividad-ap/oclc/1031278376&amp;referer=brief_results">WordCat </a>, <a href="https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?q=dccoll:ftjrap&amp;refid=dctableen">BASE</a>, <a title="EBSCOhost (Fuente académica Plus)" href="https://www.ebscohost.com/titleLists/fap-coverage.htm">EBSCO<em>hos</em>t (Fuente académica Plus)</a> <a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href="http://aura.amelica.org/detalle-revista.html?cveRevista=1708">AURA</a>, <a href="https://ezb.uni-regensburg.de/searchres.phtml?bibid=AAAAA&amp;colors=7&amp;lang=de&amp;jq_type1=QS&amp;jq_term1=Agro+productividad">Electronic Journals Library (EZB)</a>, <a href="https://www.refseek.com/search?q=Agro+productividad">Refseek</a>,<a href="https://explore.openaire.eu/search/dataprovider?datasourceId=issn___print::b930c4817adcabca2f0db426408b0942"> OpenAire</a>, <a href="https://zdb-katalog.de/title.xhtml?idn=115602532X&amp;view=full">ZEITSCHRIFT DATENBANK</a> y recientemente <a href="https://discover.libraryhub.jisc.ac.uk/search?q=isn%3A%202594-0252&amp;rn=1">Jisc</a> y <a href="https://scite.ai/journals/agro-productividad-W86Pw">scite.</a></p> Colegio de Postgraduados es-ES Agro Productividad 2448-7546 Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) production in Huatusco, Veracruz, Mexico https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2358 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To characterize the avocado production system in Huatusco, Veracruz.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Interviews based on the snowball method were applied to avocado producers in Huatusco, Veracruz. Meanwhile, fruit and water samples were used to perform a multiresidue analysis of pesticides.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The monoculture plantations are rainfed. They have a density of 100-150 trees ha<sup>-1</sup>. The Hass variety predominates in Andosols, with 5-100% slopes. Most of the producers (92%) carry out conventional management, applying pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Herbicides and brushcutters are used to control weeds. No pesticides were detected in the water samples, while Imidacloprid, Thiabendazole, and alpha-Cypermethrin were identified in a fruit sample, with 0.0038 ± 0.0014 mg/kg, 0.0022 ± 0.0009 mg/kg and 0.0703 ± 0.000 mg /kg concentrations, respectively. These concentrations fall within the limits allowed in Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> A detailed and frequent sampling of avocado fruits should be carried out to determine pesticide residues. It is also necessary to analyze samples of running water near the orchards to prevent pollution.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> The empirical knowledge of the producers about the type of soil is more precise than the scientific classification: they identify five classes of soils beyond Andosols. Additionally, there is a marked inequality in land tenure, since large-scale producers (25% of all producers) own 86% of the established area. Although, in a preliminary sampling, pesticide concentrations did not exceed the limits of residues allowed in the avocado pulp, the number of pesticide applications should be reduced.</p> Juan Guillermo Cruz Castillo Luis Rojas Alejandro Monterroso-Rivas Hector Flores-Magdaleno Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2358 Reproductive and seminal characteristics of Pelibuey rams infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the subclinical stage https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2270 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate the reproductive and seminal characteristics of Pelibuey rams infected with <em>Mycobacterium avium</em> subsp. paratuberculosis in the subclinical phase.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> In order to determine whether paratuberculosis (PTB) affects the reproductive variables and seminal quality in Pelibuey rams naturally infected with <em>Mycobacterium avium</em> subsp. <em>paratuberculosis</em> (MAP) in the subclinical phase, weekly evaluations were conducted, over a period of two months, of the variables live weight, scrotal circumference, ejaculation latency and seminal characteristics: volume, pH, masal motility and progressive individual motility, concentration, live spermatozoids and dead spermatozoids, in five rams infected by MAP and a further five uninfected rams, of average weight and age 53.58 kg (± 3.26) and 2.91 years (± 0.59), respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>PTB was not found to affect the reproductive and seminal variables evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Limitations of the study/implications: </strong>It would have been convenient to carry out the evaluation of the seminal characteristics for a longer time, however, the sampling was stopped in order to ensure the animal welfare of the rams as far as possible, since they began to show signs of PTB.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>The Pelibuey rams diagnosed with PTB in subclinical phase did not present any effect on the reproductive and seminal characteristics. Meanwhile, reproductive management can be carried out with PTB-infected Pelibuey lambs in a subclinical phase.</p> J. Vicente Vel´ázquez-Morales Marco A. Santillán-Flores Ma. Carmen Navarro-Maldonado Juan Salazar-Ortiz Demetrio A. Ambriz-García Jorge Palacio-Núñez José L. Ponce-Covarrubias César Cortez-Romero Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2270 Effect of gypsum and potassium on corn yield and on the exchangeable bases of an acid soil in La Frailesca, Chiapas https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2287 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the residual effect of gypsum in corn crops (2 years after its application in a previously limed soil), as well as the result of a new addition of gypsum combined with potassium in La Frailesca, Chiapas, Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> We used a composite factorial design. The initial arrangement (2017) consisted of four levels of gypsum (0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and four levels of potassium (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup>). In 2019, the gypsum-treated plots were divided in half: the same amount of gypsum applied in 2017 was added to the first half and the other half was used to assess the residual effect of the initial treatment. The potassium doses were the same as the original. Corn grain yield, pH, exchangeable bases, and aluminum saturation percentage were measured at 0 to 7 and 7 to 14 cm below ground level.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The greatest effect on yield was obtained with 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> of gypsum applied in 2017; no significant increases were recorded with higher gypsum doses. The exchangeable calcium content and pH level increased, while magnesium, potassium, and aluminum in the soil decreased.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications: </strong>Suspected presence of Tar Spot Complex was diagnosed.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> An excessive application of gypsum generates an imbalance in exchangeable potassium and magnesium in the soil; therefore, producers must exercise caution in the use of these products as part of their fertilization plan.</p> Rausel Camas Pereyra Robertony Camas-Gómez Gustavo Ramírez-Valverde Juliana Padilla-Cuevas Jorge D. Etchevers Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2287 Geopedological transects in karst landscapes in Campeche, Mexico https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2291 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Apples cultivated in Mexico generally are smaller and softer than those produced in other geographical latitudes considered as optimal for apple production. The aim of this evaluation was determine the effect of applications with calcium, nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, sulfur and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), as well as the harvest date on the quality of apple fruits. <strong>Methodology</strong> ‘Golden Smoothie’ apple trees were treated foliarly with CaCl2 with and without NAA, and with a mixture of N, K, Mg and S or gypsum applied to soil for two years. Apples were harvested at 141 (regular harvest date), 161 (mid-late harvest) and 171 days (late harvest) after full bloom (DAFB) and evaluated for quality at harvest time and during their storage at 0°C for up to 179 days. <strong>Results:</strong> Foliar applications of CaCl2 significantly increased the calcium content in fruit and leaves, but fruit quality, including firmness, was not influenced. Fertilization of soil with the mixture of nutrients, including CaSO4, did not influence the fruit quality. Lately harvested fruit was 14.9% heavier but 17.1% softer than fruit picked at the commercial harvest date. Delaying of fruit harvest reduced about 43 d the storability of fruit. Based in these results, the relative softness of apples grown in Mexico is not related with its calcium content, hence unlikely to be overcome with the application of this mineral. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Even in the control fruits, both seasons, the stored fruits do not show some physiological disorder as bitter pit</p> David J. Palma-López Edgar D. Shirma-Torres Joel Zavala-Cruz Francisco Bautista-Zúñiga David Julián Palma Cancino Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2291 Effect of the harvest date, calcium and other chemicals on the quality and storability of ‘Golden Smoothie’ apples https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2296 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Apples cultivated in Mexico generally are smaller and softer than those produced in other geographical latitudes considered as optimal for apple production. The aim of this evaluation was determine the effect of applications with calcium, nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, sulfur and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), as well as the harvest date on the quality of apple fruits. <strong>Methodology</strong> ‘Golden Smoothie’ apple trees were treated foliarly with CaCl2 with and without NAA, and with a mixture of N, K, Mg and S or gypsum applied to soil for two years. Apples were harvested at 141 (regular harvest date), 161 (mid-late harvest) and 171 days (late harvest) after full bloom (DAFB) and evaluated for quality at harvest time and during their storage at 0°C for up to 179 days. <strong>Results:</strong> Foliar applications of CaCl2 significantly increased the calcium content in fruit and leaves, but fruit quality, including firmness, was not influenced. Fertilization of soil with the mixture of nutrients, including CaSO4, did not influence the fruit quality. Lately harvested fruit was 14.9% heavier but 17.1% softer than fruit picked at the commercial harvest date. Delaying of fruit harvest reduced about 43 d the storability of fruit. Based in these results, the relative softness of apples grown in Mexico is not related with its calcium content, hence unlikely to be overcome with the application of this mineral. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Even in the control fruits, both seasons, the stored fruits do not show some physiological disorder as bitter pit</p> Claudio Rios-Velasco José J. Ornelas-Paz María F. Ruíz-Cisneros Rafael A. Parra-Quezada Daniel A. Pérez-Corral Martha V. González-Vigil David Ignacio Berlanga Reyes Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2296 Feasibility of the adoption of soil erosion mitigation technology on farmland and pastures in northern Mexico https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2329 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To identify the socioeconomic factors which determine the adoption of soil erosion mitigation technologies in the Nazas-Aguanaval watershed region in the state of Durango, Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>During 2018, 61 semi-structured surveys were applied to farmers in the region. The variables associated with the willingness to adopt or not were analyzed with a maximum likelihood binomial Logit regression model.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Perception of the soil erosion problem, location of the watershed or agricultural unit, and economic activity were the most influential variables in the model. The main variable that conditions the willingness to adopt technologies to improve the soil is the perception of soil erosion in production areas, with a marginal effect of 45.03%.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>The results of this survey may only be applicable to the study area.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>Training is necessary to promote and increase the perception, understanding and acceptance of soil erosion mitigation technologies</p> Aurelio Pedroza Sandoval Ernesto H. Pedroza-Parga Luis G. Yáñez-Chávez Miguel A. Vásquez-Valle Ignacio Sánchez-Cohen Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2329 Agricultural rotation crops: adaptive strategies of two farming communities in Champotón, Campeche https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2184 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To identify the agricultural rotation crops grown throughout a year by the producers of two farming communities in Champotón, Campeche, Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>This exploratory-descriptive research was conducted in 2019, in Santo Domingo Kesté and Sihochac, Champotón, Campeche. Documentary research was conducted and a survey with a total of 200 questionnaires was applied, following the snowball technique. The resulting data were analyzed with descriptive statistics using Excel’s statistical package.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Chihua pumpkin (<em>Cucurbita argyrosperma </em>Huber) and sugarcane (<em>Sacharumm officinarum</em>) are the most economically important crops. The former is specific to Santo Domingo Kesté and the latter, to Sihochac. Maize is grown in May in Sihochac, and in different months in Kesté. Chihua pumpkin, peanut (<em>Arachis hypogaea</em>), bean (<em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em>), sesame seed (<em>Sesamum indicum</em>), sweet potato (<em>Ipomoea batatas</em>), cassava (<em>Manihot esculenta</em>), and hibiscus (<em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em>) are grown only in Kesté, in different times of the year.</p> <p><strong>Study limitations/Implications: </strong>Since this research is of a local nature, its results cannot be generalized, although they may be similar to other regions of the country.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>Some agricultural relay crops are grown in Kesté and not in the Sihochac community. The way in which each community organizes its crops depends on socio-cultural factors and available resources.</p> Zulema Guadalupe Huicab Pech Jaime Bautista Ortega Alberto Santillán Fernández Carolina Flota Bañuelos Silvia Fraire Cordero Veronica Rosales Martínez Derechos de autor 2022 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2184 Water quality in an aquaponics system interconnected with a biofilter https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2310 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the water quality of an aquaponics system interconnected by a biofilter, using sponge gourd (<em>Luffa cylindrica</em>) as an inert support.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>The organisms used in the aquaponics system were juvenile tilapia (<em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>) and wormseed (<em>Chenopodium ambrosioides</em>). The following physicochemical parameters of the water were analyzed: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>, NO<sub>2</sub><sup>-</sup>, and NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>. Data generated in this work were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to the comparison of means (Tukey’s test, p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Recirculating tank water through the biofilter and plants reduced NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> and NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> by 31.6% and 18.5%, respectively. The total ammonia nitrogen in the tank did not exceed 0.022 mg L<sup>-1</sup>. The fish survival rate was 100% and 725.8 g of wormseed were harvested. The wormseed did not show symptoms of mineral deficiency.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications: </strong>Aquaponics production is still limited to small surfaces, as a consequence of the costs involved in its handling.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>Water quality parameters of the tilapia (<em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>)-wormseed (<em>Chenopodium ambrosioides</em>) aquaponics system —interconnected through a biofilter with <em>Luffa cylindrica</em>— fulfilled the recommendations for such system.</p> María L. Adriano-Anaya Kenia Y. García-López Maciel Reyes-Flores Miguel Salvador-Adriano Miguel Salvador Figueroa Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2310 Morphological and molecular characterization of Podosphaera xanthii, causal agent of powdery mildew in husk tomato and watermelon https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2250 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the causal agent of powdery mildew in husk tomato and watermelon, as well as its morphological and molecular characterization.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach</strong>: Leaves with powdery mildew symptoms were collected from husk tomato (<em>Physalis ixocarpa</em>) and watermelon (<em>Citrullus lanatus</em>) in Iguala, Guerrero, Mexico in 2018. From two isolates (Phyxa1 and Phyxa2) of husk tomato and two of watermelon (Citrus1 and Citrus2), the morphological characterization was carried out by assembling morphological structures and visualizing them under an optical microscope. For molecular characterization, the ITS region was amplified with the use of primers ITS1 and ITS4, PCR was performed and the products obtained were sequenced in the company Macrogen®. A phylogenetic analysis was performed with the resulting sequences and they were compared with other sequences available in GenBank.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>It was determined that there is morphological and genetic variability between isolates from husk tomato and watermelon. The largest sizes of conidiophores and conidia were from Phyxa1 and Phyxa2 isolates, the smallest sizes were found in Citrus1 and Citrus2. The isolates presented a tendency to group according to the host, the Phyxa1 and Phyxa2 isolates were associated with Solanacea isolates, while the Citrus1 and Citrus2 isolates were grouped with isolates of the Cucurbitaceae family.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong><em>Podosphaera xanthii</em> was shown to be the agent associated with powdery mildew in husk tomato and watermelon. The morphological and genetic variability of <em>P</em>. <em>xanthii</em> was determined, which was associated with the host of origin.</p> Guadalupe Reyes-García SANTO ANGEL ORTEGA ACOSTA Francisco Palemón-Alberto Santiago Domínguez-Monge Rafael Adelaido Rojas-García María de los Ángeles Maldonado-Peralta Erubiel Toledo-Hernández José Terrones- Salgado Blas Cruz-Lagunas Agustín Damián-Nava Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2250 Maize silage and maize stubble, strategy for cattle feed in dry seasons https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2269 <p><strong>The objective</strong> was to estimate the production costs and profitability of maize silage and maize stubble as a feeding strategy for cattle in dry seasons in the southern region of Estado de México. <strong>Methodology:</strong>30 semi-structured surveys with non-probabilistic sampling were applied during the spring/summer 2020 cycle. Socioeconomic variables, the profitability threshold and the benefit/cost ratio were analyzed. The production units were characterized as small, the average age of producers did not exceed 45 years and nine years dedicated to production. <strong>Results</strong>: The average production of maize silage and maize stubble was 28 and 7.20 tons with a cost of 1,278.40 and 3,587.23 pesos per ton. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The benefit/cost ratio in maize silage and stubble was 0.46 and 0.16. The conclusion is that both activities were profitable with a predominance of maize silage.</p> Sergio Puebla Albiter Samuel Rebollar-Rebollar Félix Astivia-Arellano Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2269 Use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for the dasometric analysis of bamboo plantations from the genus Guadua spp. https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2307 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>bamboo is a forest resource that, due to its rapid growth, requires frequent evaluations (monitoring) to define the most appropriate management strategies; however this entails a high cost and a great investment of time. This study presents an analysis of the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to generate information on the crown cover of <em>Guadua</em> spp. bamboo strains, and relates it to other of its dasometric parameters. <strong>Methodology: </strong>the areas of the bamboo strains were defined based on generated aerial images, where each strain was delimited by differentiating it from its environment, for which four types of thresholds were defined. <strong>Results</strong>: the relationship of the crown area with each dasometric parameter suggests that there is a positive trend, where in most cases there was an adequate significance (P&lt; 0.05): height R<sup>2</sup>= 0.67 (P= 0.0222); diameter 1.3 m R<sup>2</sup>= 0.56 (P= 0.0367); culm diameter 0.3 m R<sup>2</sup>= 0.57 (P= 0.0313); and number of culms R<sup>2</sup>= 0.54 (P= 0.130). <strong>Conclusions: </strong>in this way, the results showed that with the UAV it was possible to determine the coverage area of ​​individual bamboo strains and that some of their dasometric parameters could be estimated based on their allometric relationship.</p> Gabriela Orozco Gutierrez José Germán Flores Garnica Ana Graciela Flores Rodriguez Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2307 Effect of the concentration of the nutrient solution on the nutrient content of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2467 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Evaluate the nutrient concentration at the foliar level of chrysanthemums grown in tezontle sand using three concentrations of the Steiner Universal Nutrient Solution.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: A completely randomized design was used, each treatment represented a concentration of the nutrient solution and each concentration had 11 repetitions, the study variables were: foliar concentration of nutrients: N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S, plant height (AP), stem diameter (DT), number of leaves (NH), flower diameter (DF), fresh weight (PF) and dry weight (PS).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed this order of extraction K&gt;N&gt;Ca&gt;P&gt;Mg&gt;S, for all concentrations, the foliar N content was low in the three treatments (&lt;3.35%), the P was found in high concentrations. (&gt;0.63%), K was higher in the 100% concentration treatment, Mg (&gt;0.44%) was in sufficient levels, in Ca the 100% concentration had greater absorption and finally the S content was only the adequate in the concentration of 100 %, in the morphological variables there were no significant differences.</p> <p><strong>Limitations of the study/Implications</strong>: High temperatures helped the proliferation of pests; therefore, it would be good to have a better control of temperatures inside the greenhouse.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> Therefore, using different concentrations of the nutrient solution in chrysanthemums grown in tezontle sand affects the nutrient content at the foliar level but not necessarily its morphology.</p> Betsy Quevedo-Ortiz Ma. de Jesús Juárez-Hernández J. Jesús Magdaleno-Villar Marcelino Pérez-Vivar Edna Fabiola Valdez-Hernández José Merced Mejía-Muñoz Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2467 Peri-urban home gardens in San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Mexico are fundamental spaces of resistance https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2297 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the effects of neoliberal policies (including the Green Revolution), the urban sprawl (as a consequence of population growth), and the reduction of agricultural areas on peri-urban agriculture; however, the main focus is the forms of resistance against these pressures from the dominant system.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>Through participant observation, surveys, collection, and botanization we identified plant species, their diversity, uses, and richness. Home gardens in San Felipe Ecatepec, Chiapas, Mexico are a system, which consists of subsystems, functions, composition, and management, as well as a high number of species, high to moderate richness, and a surface that oscillates between 600 m<sup>2</sup> and 2500 m<sup>2</sup>. Growing products next to the house provides healthy and fresh food, creates a useful and productive space, and preserves agrobiodiversity. It is an agroecosystem where each family and <em>sitio</em> or home garden interact with other families and other home gardens, integrating local knowledge and offering a space for families to live together. They can be considered spaces of resistance based on traditional knowledge, which also help to control their resources and to bolster individual and collective food sovereignty.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Home gardens in San Felipe Ecatepec, Chiapas, Mexico are a system, which consists of subsystems, functions, composition, and management, as well as a high number of species, high to moderate richness, and established on surfaces that oscillates between 600 m<sup>2</sup> and 2,500 m<sup>2</sup>.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> The research was carried out during the two years of the COVID-19 pandemic, which posed an extra challenge to the field work.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>Growing products next to the house provides healthy and fresh food, creates a useful and productive space, and preserves agrobiodiversity. It is an agroecosystem where each family and <em>sitio</em> or home garden interact with other families and other home gardens, integrating local knowledge and offering a space for families to live together. They can be considered spaces of resistance based on traditional knowledge, which also help families to control their resources and to bolster individual and collective food sovereignty.</p> Amparo Vázquez García Cecilia Elizondo, Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2297 Main technical-productive characteristics of meliponiculture in two locations of the municipality of Calkiní, Campeche https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2292 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To identify the main technical-productive characteristics of two meliponiculture production systems—traditional and technical—in two locations of the municipality of Calkiní, Campeche.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Semi-structured interviews of 60 items were applied to bee growers from Pucnanchen and Santa Cruz between August and December 2021. The population of meliponiculturists was established by using the snowball method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We found a total of 43 bee colonies of the <em>M. beecheii</em> species (39 <em>hobones</em> and 14 technified boxes). The interviewed meliponiculturists are over 49 years old and have an average of 10.75 colonies per meliponary. In modern meliponaries, galvanized metal sheets have replaced huano (<em>Sabal yapa</em>) leaf roofing. Likewise, some <em>hobones </em>have been replaced by technified boxes to breed native bees.</p> <p><strong>Study limitations/Implications:</strong> This study describes the technical-productive characteristics of the two production systems (traditional and technical) used in meliponiculture in two locations of the municipality of Calkiní, Campeche.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> There is a decline in the number of people practicing meliponiculture, an activity still rooted in rural communities and that retains its economic, cultural, and social importance. In rural communities, the use of melipona honey for health purposes persists, as well as the religious customs associated with this type of honey.</p> JESUS FROYLAN MARTINEZ PUC Miguel Á. Magaña-Magaña William R. Cetzal-Ix H. M. J. López-Castilla Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2292 Palatability of animal oils included in the diet of the Mexican axolotl and its effect on growth and survival https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2294 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The growth, survival, and condition factor of Ambystoma mexicanum juveniles fed with three commercial feed-based diets coated with different animal oils as potential palatability enhancers were evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Three diets were prepared using commercial feed coated with fish, chicken, and krill oil. The experiment lasted 81 days, the food was provided to the axolotls (6 per experimental unit, in triplicate) every 48 h, at 4% of the total biomass. The total weight of each experimental unit was recorded every 15 days, at the end of the experiment individual weight and height and survival were recorded. The following variables were calculated: Fulton's K, specific growth rate, coefficient of variation of final weight and size heterogeneity.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: All three treatments showed an increase in total biomass, with a trend towards better performance in chicken and fish oil treatments compared to krill oil. When performing the statistical analysis, it was found that there were no significant differences among the treatments for any of the variables recorded.</p> <p><strong>Implications: </strong>The three oils used in the present study were good palatable agents in the food intake of <em>A. mexicanum</em>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>It is recommended to use chicken oil as an attractant additive in the formulation of a specific diet due to its low cost.</p> Valeria S. Ocaranza-Joya Fernando Vega Villasante Cynthia E. Montoya-Martínez Daniel Badillo-Zapata Erick F. López-Félix Héctor Nolasco-Soria Leonardo Martínez-Cárdenas Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2294 Procurement and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from cassava bagasse (Manihot esculenta Crantz) https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2432 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To procure and characterize cellulose nanocrystals from cassava bagasse.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Cellulose nanocrystals were obtained from cassava bagasse by acid hydrolysis (HCI), ultrasonication, centrifugation, dialysis, deep freezing and lyophilization. The cassava bagasse and the cellulose nanocrystals obtained were physicochemically characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Coupled Elemental Analysis (SEM-EDS). As an additional technique, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The analyses performed show that the cellulose obtained was type Iβ. This study reports a percentage of crystallinity of the cassava bagasse cellulose of 37.1%, increasing the percentage to 48% crystallinity in cellulose nanocrystals. The diameters of the cassava bagasse fibers were reported to be 2 μm and their elemental composition (SEM-EDS) mainly constituted by carbon (C), oxygen (O) and traces of nitrogen (N). The morphology observed through AFM of the nanocrystals of cassava bagasse (<em>Manihot esculenta</em>) was rod-shaped, with helicoidal appearance without residual charge, with diameters between 8.7 and 9.3 nm.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>The acid hydrolysis process showed a low percentage of crystallinity, although higher than other works reported for cassava bagasse.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>The results obtained confirm the possibility of obtaining cellulose nanocrystals from cassava bagasse (<em>Manihot esculenta</em>).</p> Mónica S. Correa-Durán Gloria I. Bolio-López Lucien Veleva Rogelio Ramírez-Casillas Manuel M. Hernández-Villegas Patricia de la Cruz-Burelo Samuel Córdova-Sánchez Cintya Valerio-Cárdenas Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2432 The orchids of Megamexico and their interactions with pollinators https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2469 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To describe the pollination syndromes of the orchids of Megamexico and the importance of the interactions between the orchids and their respective pollinators for the conservation of both groups.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> An exhaustive search was carried out on the pollinators of each of the orchids that grow in Megamexico. With the information sources available, a data matrix was prepared that includes orchids and all their pollinators. Subsequently, it was quantified which group of pollinators the orchids interact with the most. Finally, it is described what physiological adaptations and morphologies orchids have developed to attract specific pollinators.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Orchids from Megamexico maintain close relationships with specific pollinators. Said interaction is mediated by the shape, size, production of aromas, nectar, and the color of the flower. Thus, four large groups of pollinators are those that interact with the orchids of Megamexico, with the Hymenoptera being the group of pollinators that pollinates the most orchid species in Megamexico and birds to a lesser extent.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> This study describes the importance of pollinators and their interactions with orchids for orchid prevalence.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> It is of vital importance to include orchid pollinators in conservation programs to ensure that interactions between orchids and pollinators continue to be effective and thus guarantee the permanence of the two groups.</p> Brandon Eduardo Gutiérrez Rodríguez Álvaro Hernández-Rivera Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 10.32854/agrop.v15i12.2469