Agro Productividad https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad <p><strong>Agro Productividad</strong> es una publicación mensual del Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas. Fue fundada en 2008 con el objetivo de difundir resultados en artículos científicos originales, así como notas científicas, revisiones temáticas, relacionados con la agricultura (cultivos, silvicultura, ganadería, pesca y acuicultura, y agroindustria) y la producción de agroalimentos.</p> <p>También aborda temáticas sobre procesos económicos, sociales y ambientales que impactan la productividad agrícola y el desarrollo rural.</p> <p>Todas las contribuciones recibidas son sometidas a un proceso de arbitraje doble ciego y edición final. La revista se publica en español y en inglés. Se encuentra indexada a diferentes indicadores nacionales e internacionales resaltando <a title="CONACYT (Competencia Internaciona)" href="http://www.revistascytconacyt.mx/index.php/revistas/resultado/461"><strong>CONACYT </strong>(Competencia Internacional)</a>,<a href="https://www.ebsco.com/"><em> EBSCO</em></a>, <a href="https://latam.cengage.com/">CENGAGE LEARNING</a>, INC., <a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=es&amp;user=BX46e5AAAAAJ">Google Académico</a> además de <a href="https://clarivate.libguides.com/webofscienceplatform/zr">Zoological Records</a> en <a href="https://mjl.clarivate.com/">Master Journal List</a> de <a href="https://clarivate.com/">Clarivate Analitycs</a> (antes ISI), <a href="http://periodica.unam.mx/F?func=find-b-0&amp;local_base=per01"><em>PERIODICA</em></a>-<a href="https://biblat.unam.mx/es/">Biblat</a>, <a href="https://www.cabdirect.org/">CABI</a> y <a href="http://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/management/settings/cabdirect.org">CAB Abstracts</a>, <a href="https://www.latindex.org/latindex/Solar/Busqueda">Latindex (Directorio</a> y <a href="https://www.latindex.org/latindex/Solar/Busqueda">Catálogo</a>), <a href="https://www.redib.org/">REDIB</a>, <a href="http://sibdi.ucr.ac.cr/">SIBDI</a>, <a href="http://miar.ub.edu/">MIAR</a>, <a href="https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?or_facet_source_title=jour.1389419&amp;and_facet_source_title=jour.1389419&amp;viz-st:aggr=mean">DIMENSIONS</a>, <a href="https://core.ac.uk/data-providers/14738">CORE</a>,<a href="https://www.scilit.net/journal/4149474"> Scilit</a>, <a href="https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/search?ln=en&amp;cc=2394">AgEconSEARCH , </a><a href="https://www.worldcat.org/title/agroproductividad-ap/oclc/1031278376&amp;referer=brief_results">WordCat </a>, <a href="https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?q=dccoll:ftjrap&amp;refid=dctableen">BASE</a>, <a title="EBSCOhost (Fuente académica Plus)" href="https://www.ebscohost.com/titleLists/fap-coverage.htm">EBSCO<em>hos</em>t (Fuente académica Plus)</a> <a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href="http://aura.amelica.org/detalle-revista.html?cveRevista=1708">AURA</a>, <a href="https://ezb.uni-regensburg.de/searchres.phtml?bibid=AAAAA&amp;colors=7&amp;lang=de&amp;jq_type1=QS&amp;jq_term1=Agro+productividad">Electronic Journals Library (EZB)</a>, <a href="https://www.refseek.com/search?q=Agro+productividad">Refseek</a>,<a href="https://explore.openaire.eu/search/dataprovider?datasourceId=issn___print::b930c4817adcabca2f0db426408b0942"> OpenAire</a>, <a href="https://zdb-katalog.de/title.xhtml?idn=115602532X&amp;view=full">ZEITSCHRIFT DATENBANK</a> y recientemente <a href="https://discover.libraryhub.jisc.ac.uk/search?q=isn%3A%202594-0252&amp;rn=1">Jisc</a> y <a href="https://scite.ai/journals/agro-productividad-W86Pw">scite.</a></p> Colegio de Postgraduados es-ES Agro Productividad 2448-7546 Productive response of dual-purpose cows supplemented with chelate minerals and calcium salts https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2569 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate milk production, body condition and ethological behavior of grazing cows supplemented with chelated minerals and calcium salts, in dry tropical conditions.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Two treatments were evaluated, T1 = Base feeding (grazing + 4 kg of concentrated feed cow<sup>-1</sup> day<sup>-1</sup> (CF); T2 = CF + 300 g cow<sup>-1</sup> day<sup>-1</sup> of nucleus (chelated minerals + calcium salts) (N). Milk production data were evaluated during 32 days in four periods of seven days, the body condition at the beginning, 15 and 30 days after the evaluation, and the ethological behavior of the cows.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In cows supplemented with nucelus, milk production increased 19.9% (P ≤ 0.05); body condition improved 0.5 units, there was no difference in grazing time (P&gt;0.05) and rumination time was longer (P ≤ 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>The response to reproductive variables was not assessed in this study/reproductive activity is likely to improve in response to improved body condition.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>By supplementing dual-purpose cows in the first third of lactation with chelated minerals and calcium salts, milk production increases, and body condition and rumination time improve.</p> Alejandro Ley de Coss AGUSTÍN SOLIS VAZQUEZ BEATRIZ ZAMBRANO CASTILLO REYNERIO ADRIÁN ALONSO BRAN OZIEL DANTE MONTAÑEZ VALDEZ CÁNDIDO ENRIQUE GUERRA MEDINA Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2569 Efficacy of chemical fungicides against the anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Carica papaya fruits https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2583 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the efficacy of chemical fungicides against <em>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides</em> in papaya fruits.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>The effect of four chemical fungicides (A+F=azoxystrobin + fludioxinil, C+F=cypronil + fludioxinil, B+P=boscalid + pyraclostrobin and T=tiabendazole) at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> were assessed on severity and the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) of <em>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides </em>inoculated on papaya fruits.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>At 12 days after inoculation (dai) A+F achieved a range of effectiveness between 63.0 (250 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) to 77.52 (1000 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>); while the range of effectiveness for T was 12.8% (250 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) to 74% (1000 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>). Both fungicides achieved the highest effectiveness at 1000 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> that C+F (38.5%) and B+P (55.6%). The AUDPC achieved the same value at the four studied concentration in A+F, C+F, and B+P. Only 750 and 1000 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> of T achieved the lowest AUDPC than 250 and 500 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>The fungicides A+F and T achieved adequate control of anthracnose in papaya fruits and the use of the diagrammatic logarithmic scale is easy to use to give a quick estimate of the disease, as well as being easy to reproduce.</p> Wilberth Chan-Cupul Julio Ruelas-Jurado Juan Carlos Sánchez-Rangel Marco Tulio Buenrostro-Nava Gilberto Manzo-Sánchez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2583 Cardinal temperatures of populations developed from native maize (Zea mays L.) from central and southern, Tamaulipas, Mexico https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2588 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To estimate the cardinal temperatures of native maize populations from Tamaulipas.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Ten genotypes developed from native germplasms were established in Güémez, Tamaulipas, on 12 planting dates (2019 and 2020). The cardinal temperatures (T<sub>b</sub>, T<sub>o</sub>, and T<sub>u</sub>) of each of the cultivars were estimated through the decomposition of a quadratic model, using the days from sowing to tasseling and the average temperature of each sowing date from that period.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>From sowing to tasseling, the evaluated cultivars recorded 15.7-18.1 °C base temperatures (T<sub>b</sub>), 28.3-30.1 °C optimum temperatures (T<sub>o</sub>), and 32.3-34.4 °C threshold temperatures (T<sub>u</sub>). The T<sub>b</sub> and T<sub>o</sub> values represent the high thermal requirement of the germplasm, while T<sub>u</sub> stands for its resistance to high temperatures. The L3, L4, L5, and VHA cultivars stood out for their broader adaptation range (16.2 to 34.4 °C), while the L3, L4, and L6 cultivars have a higher resistance to high temperatures (average T<sub>u</sub>: 34.5 °C).</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> The cardinal temperatures determined in this study depended on the evaluated genotypes and the environment in which they developed.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>The maize germplasm evaluated in this study was resistant to high temperatures. As a result of its adaptation to the conditions of central and southern Tamaulipas, this germplasm is a source of variation for the characteristics that provide resistance to the stress caused by high temperatures.</p> Jose Alberto Lopez Santillan Alejandro Garcia-Ramirez Benigno Estrada Drouaillet Wilberth Alfredo Poot Poot Zoila Reséndiz Ramírez Sóstenes Varela Fuentes Netzahualcóyotl Mayek Pérez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2588 Evaluation of the effect of organic fertilizers on the morphophysiological parameters and antioxidant compounds of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.). https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2632 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate the effect of organic fertilizers on the morphophysiological parameters and antioxidant compounds of Swiss chard (<em>B. vulgaris</em> L.) var. ‘Rainbow’ grown under greenhouse conditions.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> A completely randomized design was used with three treatments and 33 repetitions: T1 (poultry manure-based organic fertilizer (T1 AAC)), T2 (coffe pulp-based vermicompost (T2 LC)), and T3 (chemical fertilization (T3 FQ)). Plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh biomass, dry biomass, chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, total polyphenols, DPPH, and yield were evaluated. An analysis of variance and Tukey’s test (α=0.05) were used.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> For most of the variables evaluated, the best results were obtained with the poultry manure-based organic fertilizer (T1 AAC) treatment. The antioxidant compounds and the quality of Swiss chard were influenced by organic fertilizers, with 0.21 mg Eq. gallic acid g<sup>-1</sup> fresh tissue (ft), total chlorophyll of 19.5 µg g<sup>-1</sup> (ft), and a yield of 6,150 kg·m<sup>2</sup>.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> The mineral content of this vegetable was not evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>The use of poultry manure-based organic fertilizers can be an alternative nutritional management for Swiss chard cultivation.</p> Elisama Sánchez-Domínguez Liliana Lara Capistrán Elia Nora Aquino-Bolaños Jimena Esther Alba-Jiménez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2632 Modification of the composition of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil based on the quality of the light https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2644 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To identify the changes in the concentration of the main components of thyme (<em>Thymus vulgaris</em>) essential oil in response to five different LED colors.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>A completely randomized experimental design was used. The design included five treatments (white light; blue light; red light; 75% blue light and 25% red light; and 75% red light and 75% blue light) and 10 repetitions, at a 25 μmol m<sup>−2</sup> s<sup>−1</sup> luminous intensity, during a 16 h photoperiod. The thyme plants were sown in a pot with a substrate made up of 50% peat, 48% perlite, and 2% vermicompost. Each plant was an experimental unit. The plants were placed in light isolation chambers and subjected to the treatment for 35 days.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The concentration of the main molecules in the essential oil recorded considerable changes between treatments: the concentration of thymol (its main component) increased in the white light treatments, as well as in the red light (75%) and blue light (75%) treatments. In addition, the composition of the essential oil resulting from these treatments is different to the composition reported in the references.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications: </strong>The light intensity used in this experiment was lower than the light intensity required for plant growth; however, it was enough to produce changes in the secondary metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> The changes in the quality of the light modify the composition of the thyme essential oil. Even at a low light intensity (25 µmol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>), the changes in the spectrum composition under which the plants grow influence the composition of the essential oil.</p> <p> </p> Carlos de Jesús Morales Becerril Maria Teresa Colinas León Ramón Marcos Soto Hernández Ma Teresa Martinez Damian Guillermo Mendoza Castelan Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2644 Water supply in artificial troughs: a strategy to mitigate the impacts of climate change in the Maya forest https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2647 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To verify the functionality of drinking troughs based on fauna record.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: Most of the approximately 70 artificial drinking troughs were installed inside the core zones of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve (CBR). The remaining troughs were installed in communities and left under the protection and supervision of beekeepers. A camera-trap station was associated with each of the drinking troughs installed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Ninety-one wildlife species that drink water from the artificial troughs have been identified, including 30 mammals, 53 birds, 5 reptiles, and three amphibians. Jaguars, tapirs, and other endangered species are some of the most frequent visitors to these sites, especially during the dry season.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> The use of artificial water troughs is an adequate alternative to guarantee water availability in the Calakmul region. The high diversity of species that constantly visit the drinking troughs during the dry season makes evident the functionality of the water supply strategy with artificial drinking troughs.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions</strong>: The drinking troughs can be a tool for various objectives in the region. It arose from the need to respond to emergency climatological events (<em>i.e.</em>, droughts), but it has been adapted to the regional needs and other activities. It has been considered a successful management strategy in the face of climate change.</p> Fernando M. Contreras-Moreno Daniel Jesús-Espinosa Lizardo Cruz-Romo Khiavett G. Sánchez-Pinzón José M. Méndez-Tun Florentino Pérez-Méndez Luis Tamay-Yah Ernesto Gutiérrez-Cortés Víctor D. Duque-Moreno Yulisenia Díaz-Ruiz Dulce Y. Servín-Camacho Gabriela Méndez-Saint Martin Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2647 Levels of fat for potential consumption of juvenile Ambystoma mexi-canum (Shaw & Nodder, 1798) axolotls: Lipid levels https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2649 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The present study focused on the effect of different lipid levels on growth (weight and length) and survival in juvenile <em>Ambystoma</em> <em>mexicanum.</em></p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> Four diets with the same 45% protein level and different lipid levels: 6, 8, 10 and 12% were tested for a period of 81 days. For the preparation of the diets, two key ingredients were used, such as fishmeal and fish oil, these as protein base and lipid source. The experiment consisted of placing six organisms per experimental unit in tubs with 40 L of water for a period of 81 days; period during which four biometrics were performed, the organisms were fed every 48 hours to the weight of their biomass. The digestibility of the diets, initial and final height, initial and final weight, weight gained, weight gained per day, specific growth rate, survival, Fulton index and protein efficiency rate were recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> At the end of the experiment, significant differences (p &gt; 0.05) were observed in the growth and survival of the axolotls in the diets of 8, 10 and 12% lipids.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>A wider range of lipid levels could not be tested, due to the number of individuals available for the experiment.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> According to the data obtained in this study, it is recommended to include a level of 45% protein and 8% lipids in the diets of juvenile <em>Ambystoma</em> <em>mexicanum</em>, for their better development and nutrition</p> Itzel Manjarrez-Alcívar Leonardo Martínez Cardenas Fernando Vega-Villasante Daniel Badillo-Zapata Cynthia E. Montoya-Martínez Erick F. López-Félix Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2649 Factors affecting the profitability of wheat production in the states of Guanajuato and Nuevo Leon, Mexico https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2666 <p>The objective of this research was the analysis of the main factors involved in the profitability of bread wheat in the states of Guanajuato and Nuevo León, Mexico. To obtain the information, semi-structured interviews were applied to key informants who indicated the context of the crop in their region. In order to estimate profitability, production performance and costs production were determined. The production cost information, for the two Mexican states, was obtained through the producer panels methodology in 2019. Producers were asked about the costs expended in land preparation, cultivation inputs, harvest and others such as water, electricity and financial rights. In addition, wheat yields and the price received per ton sold at the market. It was noticed that Nuevo León and Guanajuato have an agro-industrial infrastructure that demands Mexican wheat. In each state, the profitability of the crop depends on a number of factors such as the planting system and the production technology used; but in all the places studied, bread wheat had positive profitability. However, there are high production costs and a continuous deterioration of the real prices of the product. It is necessary to develop soft wheat varieties that adapt to rainfall conditions for agricultural regions where wheat cultivation is under those conditions. Although Mexico is self-sufficient in the production of flour, each year it is necessary to import an additional volume of bread-making wheat since Mexican industry is deficient facing the high demand for bread production.</p> Alma Velia Ayala Garay Eduardo Espitia-Rangel Gustavo Almaguer-Vargas Blanca L. Buendía-Ayala Esmeralda Marín-Vázquez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2666 Food losses from farm to retail operations: agricultural produces supply chain of Baja Peninsula, México https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2669 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate food losses (FL) volumes generated by farms in Baja California Peninsula, México, of five agricultural commodities. <strong>Design/methodology/approach</strong>: Baja California Sur (BCS) state was the study area. Information was gathered from a total of 380 sampled chain actors in asparagus, mango, strawberry, orange and tomato by survey and personal interviews. Tobit technique was applied to identify factors that influence FL percentage. <strong>Results</strong>: Data shows about 11.8% of asparagus is lost during harvesting and distribution, as well as 8.5% of strawberry, 26% of mango, 17.8% of oranges and 3.5% of tomatoes, representing 29.9% loss rate of marketed yield. <strong>Limitations on study/implications</strong>: This study did not classify commodities in the last steps of the supply chain. The five commodities used in the current study correspond to the more important agricultural produces in BCS, but given changing market, harvesting time and produce availability did not consider the waste of the supply chain. <strong>Findings/conclusions</strong>: Commodity, type of transportation and distribution, education, and human resources has been identified as influence factors in the volume of FL. This exploratory study fills the void in information in terms of its geographic scope and food group number, and farm owners willing to manage food losses for the purpose of obtaining bioactive compound.</p> Rubi Alejandra Martinez Camacho Felipe de Jesús Ascencio Valle Elhadi Yahia Kazuz Tomás Rivas García Ralf Thomas Voegele Thelma Rosa Castellanos Cervantes Luis Felipe Beltrán Morales Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2669 Geographic distribution prediction of an invading species in Mexico: the case of the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2678 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the potential distribution of the monk parakeet (<em>Myiopsitta monachus</em>) in Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> The study generated the model with confirmed presences of the species, the MaxEnt algorithm, and bioclimatic and elevation information. The evaluation, calibration and selection were carried out with the kuenm package in R. The model generated was projected to the geographic space of Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The model estimated the most favorable areas for the species in Mexico, based on the similarity of the climate and elevation conditions of the sites with its natural distribution. The most favorable sites for the species are distributed in the central–southern regions of the country. Variables influencing its distribution are derived from temperature, precipitation and elevation.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications:</strong> The model can contribute to the planning of management and monitoring strategies that mitigate the invasion of this species.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> The areas in Mexico where there is a high risk of invasion by the monk parakeet were identified.</p> Manuel A. Salazar–Borunda Rebeca Valdez–Abdo Martinn Emilio Pereda Solis José H. Martínez–Guerrero Andrés Saucedo–Rentería Ernesto Peredo–Rivera Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2678 Bibliometric analysis of wastewater treatment with microalgae in the period 1985–2023 https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2682 <p>E</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>. To indicate the condition of the wastewater treatment with microalgae (WTwM) research.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>. The words treatment, wastewater, and microalgae, were entered as keywords in a search under "article title" in SCOPUS. The documents found were saved and exported as a file with a .bb extension. From R Studio, the BIBLIOMETRIX interface was linked to R Statistics. The interface was opened from MOZILLA to import the .bb file.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. There is a significant increase in the number of papers published since 2013, up to 68 articles in 2022. The authors with the highest number of contributions on the subject are Ivet Ferrer and Joan García. The countries most involved in this issue are China, Spain, India and Brazil; China is the one with the highest number of publications. The WTwM studies in 2023 are concerned with investigating biomass accumulation and nutrient removal as a way to make sustainable use of the process. <strong>Conclusions</strong>. WTwM is a research topic that is studying and disseminating knowledge since the 80's. The author who stands out the most is Ivet Ferrer. China has little collaboration with scientists from other countries. The most recent WTwM studies address issues related to biodiesel production and biogas production. The topics to be addressed in future research will be related to the study of temperature, osmotic capacity, pH and O<sub>2</sub> levels.</p> Abel Santillán Ángeles Abel Quevedo-Nolasco Antonia Macedo-Cruz Axel Eduardo Rico-Sánchez Bertha Patricia Zamora-Morales Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2682 Drip-tape irrigation depth: water use efficiency, yield and forage quality in maize https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2686 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>to evaluate the effect of the drip-tape irrigation depth on the efficiency of water use, yield, nutritional quality and profitability of forage maize, a study was established by installing drip-tape at a depths 0.05, 0.15 and 0.30 meters.</p> <p><strong>Design/ Methodology/ Approach: </strong>a randomized block experimental design was used. Treatments evaluated consisted of the installation of drip-tape at three depths 0.05, 0.15 and 0.30 m; each treatment in three replicates. The experimental unit was a 15 m<sup>2</sup> surface (comprising four 5m-long furrows, with a 0.76 m separation between furrows).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>results showed that with the drip-tape installed at a depth of 0.15 m, the highest biomass production and water use efficiency were obtained, without modifying the bromatological quality of the forage. However, the best benefit-cost ratio corresponded to the drip-tape installed at 0.3 m, recovering $1.27 for each MXN peso invested in crop production.</p> <p><strong>Limitations/ Implications of the study: </strong>water scarcity in arid and semi-arid regions is a global problem, so it is necessary to use irrigation methods that make water use more efficient without reducing crop yield.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>the installation of the drip-tape at a depth of 0.15 m is recommended, due to the improvement in yield and water use efficiency without affecting nutritional quality of the forage or profitability of maize crop.</p> Pablo Preciado-Rangel Sergio. A Ortiz-Diaz Arturo Reyes-González Manuel Fortis Hernández Jessica.J Rocha Santillano Alma. V Ayala Garay Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2686 In vitro gas production and digestibility of oat and triticale forage mixtures ensiled with fibrolytic enzymes and inoculants https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2711 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the effects of adding fibrolytic enzymes (FE) or lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants to 40 d silages with oat and triticale (O:T) mixtures on the ratio and composition of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and its subsequent <em>in vitro</em> gas production (GP) and <em>in vitro</em> dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) at 24 h.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Silages elaborated with two O:T ratios (60:40 and 80:20) treated with low (LD), medium (MD), and high (HD) doses of FE (0.75, 1, and 1.25 g/kg forage in wet basis (WB), respectively), and LAB (0.188, 0.25, and 0.31 g/kg WB, respectively). In both cases (FE and LAB), the control had a value of 0. Subsequently, pH, NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), hemicellulose (HEM), cellulose (CEL), dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), GP parameters, and IVDMD were assessed. GP parameters included maximum velocity (Vmax), fractional rate (S), and lag. Experiments were planned in complete randomized designs (CRD), including factorial and split-plot arrangements. Variance analysis (ANOVA) models included fixed (doses, additives, and FR) and random (place/moment of sampling) effects.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> LAB improved the IVDMD at 24 h of 60:40 and 80:20 O:T silages. FE did not reduce the NDF of 60:40 silages, but LD and MD increased the HEM and CP, and reduced the ADF, ADL, and CEL; these results are correlated (r) with the improvement of pH pattern, GP, and IVDMD.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> The differences in the NDF of FR mixtures could affect the effectiveness of FE and LAB.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>Although FE and LAB did not reduce the NDF, they changed the ratios of ADF, ADL, HEM, CEL, and CP of silages, potentially improving the GP and IVDMD.</p> DELI NAZMIN TIRADO GONZALEZ Monica Gonzalez Reyes Fredy Lopez-Rodriguez Odi´lon Gayosso Barragan LUIS ALBERTO MIRANDA ROMERO GUSTAVO TIRADO ESTRADA Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2711 Knowledge management for small-scale agricultural producers: a thematic proposal for strengthening rural economic units https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2714 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To establish a thematic proposal for the management of knowledge of small-scale agricultural producers (peasants) and the strengthening of rural economic units in the state of Querétaro, to energize the social fabric and improve the quality of life of the rural population.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>A bibliometric study of the scientific production on peasant knowledge in Mexico was carried out, as well as an observational analysis focused on specific and general problems. According to the information obtained and the problems detected, three areas for knowledge management were established: technical-productive, managerial and entrepreneurial.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In the technical-productive area, training in good agricultural practices should be addressed, along with technological innovation and the generation of added value. In the management area, issues related with strategic management with a broad entrepreneurial vision that could help create strategies for agribusiness development. Concerning entrepreneurship, the internal and external factors of the environment stand out, which allow awakening their interest, encouraging leadership and direction for business development, in addition to promoting associativity in farming regions. The implementation of the topics proposed in the research will strengthen and boost small-scale agricultural production in the state of Querétaro.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>This study can serve as a reference for small-scale agricultural producers (peasant).</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>There is a great opportunity through knowledge management to increase the capacities, knowledge and skills of small-scale agricultural producers (peasants) in the state of Querétaro regarding technical-productive, managerial and entrepreneurial themes, which will generate economic, social and environmental impacts for the benefit of this rural sector.</p> JOSE FERNANDO VASCO LEAL Arturo Erik Muñoz Gonzalez Martin Vivanco Vargas Ángel Bravo Vinaja Santiago de Jesus Méndez Gallegos Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2714 The use of native yeasts to improve the organoleptic characteristics and yield of artisanal mezcal https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2755 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the use of native yeasts on the yield and on the organoleptic characteristics of artisanal mezcal in Guerrero, Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Native yeasts from fermentation vats containing <em>Agave angustifolia</em> and <em>A. cupreata</em> were subjected to molecular isolation and identification in three regions of the state of Guerrero. A consortium of yeasts was designed and used to produce artisanal mezcal, using <em>A. cupreata</em> as a substrate. The experimental mezcal (with yeasts) and the control (without yeasts, only producer lore) were compared. Finally, the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the final product were assessed at the Concours Mondial de Bruxelles 2020.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> <em>S. cerevisiae</em> A5GM, <em>T. delbrueckii</em> A6GM, <em>S. cerevisiae</em> A3GM, and <em>K. marxianus</em> A2GM were identified and used in a consortium that produced 46% more <strong>yield</strong> (8.3 kg L<sup>-1</sup> compared to 10.5 kg L<sup>-1</sup>). The mezcal produced with this consortium obtained the Grand Gold medal based on its sensory characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> To work with the producer in both systems with and without yeast.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> The consortium improved the production yield by 26%, along with the sensory characteristics; therefore, the use of native yeasts is feasible and recommended for the improvement of processes in the production of artisanal mezcal from Guerrero.</p> Amairany Carrasco-López Yanet Romero-Ramírez José A. López-Barrera Rubén D. Moreno-Terrazas-Casildo Arturo Ramírez-Peralta Alberto Patricio-Hernández ANGELA VICTORIA FORERO FORERO Jeiry Toribio-Jiménez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2755 Comparative analysis of the chemical quality of fishmeal produced on the Northwest coast of Mexico https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2870 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate the physico-chemical quality of fishmeal produced by four companies in different states of the Republic (Baja California Sur, Jalisco, and Sinaloa).</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>The analyzed fishmeals were from six batches, sardine meal from California pilchard and Pacific thread herring (<em>S. sagax</em> and <em>O. libertate</em>), and skipjack tuna and (<em>K. pelamis</em>) processed by different Mexican companies. Proximal chemical analysis was carried out at the Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The fishmeal’s quality parameters analyzed in this study showed similar values to those reported in the literature. The variations observed in their proximate chemical composition allow them to be classified according to the results of the analyses.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>Considering that four of the six flours were produced from the same raw material, <em>S. sagax</em>, the high variability in their physico-chemical quality parameters indicates a lack of standardization in both production methods and quality controls among the producing companies.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong> <em>K. pelamis</em> by-products can produce meals of equal or better physico-chemical quality than those produced from <em>S. sagax</em>. The development of official regulations establishing quality standards to fishmeal production at national level is desirable for competitiveness.</p> Francisco Draco Lizárraga-Hernández Maritza L. Soberanes-Yepiz Edilmar CORTES-JACINTO Carlos Rangel-Dávalos Kathia Cienfuegos-Martínez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2870 The Mexican Beekeeping Agri-food System: A descriptive analysis https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2553 <p><strong>O</strong></p> <p>production in Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> We used the Food Balance Sheet obtained from the FAOSTAT website and the statistics of livestock production in Mexico recovered from the website of the Servicio de Información Agrícola y Pesquera (SIAP). We chose ten variables: production, import, export, per capita consumption, number of hives, production volume, economic value, price paid to producers, yield, and revenue per unit. The analysis describes the variables in the last recorded year at a global and local level, as well as the changes and trends according to the available historical records.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In 2019, Mexico held the ninth place in honey production with 64,000 t and had the capacity to export around 50 % of said production. Between 2006 and 2016, the number of hives increased by 6 %, while production volume and yield decreased by 1.6 % and 7.5 %. In contrast, the economic value, the price paid to producers, and the revenue per unit increased by 14 %, 5.7 %, and 8.5 %.</p> <p><strong>Study limitations/Implications:</strong> This type of study relies on records of statistical information systems, whose availability depends on the variable of interest.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong>In Mexico, beekeeping is practiced throughout the country, making it self-sufficient in terms of domestic honey consumption while allowing its participation in the international market. Therefore, the country has optimization opportunities, especially in the central and northern areas, that have the lowest number of hives and production volume levels</p> JUAN MANUEL ZALDÍVAR CRUZ Geiner Francisco Alvarez Sanchez Enrique Sauri Duch Angel Sol Sanchez Pedro Antonio Mosocoso Ramirez Xariss Miryam Sanchez Chino Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2553 Materials and methods for the microencapsulation of substances of food and agricultural interest https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2575 <p>Microencapsulation involves trapping solid, liquid, or gas particles within an inert cover to protect them from the environment. This technique has numerous biotechnological applications in the food, agricultural, pharmaceutical, and other industries. Microcapsules are relevant for obtaining viable products and optimizing their efficacy, stability, safety, and ease of application. There is a wide range of coating materials and techniques used to microencapsulate various substances of interest. This article presents a review of encapsulating materials and microencapsulation methods used in the food and agricultural industries.</p> Magali Ordóñez-García Mario A. Morales-Ovando Laura G. Villanueva-Romero Verónica G. García-Cano Olalla Sánchez-Ortíz Juan Carlos Bustillos Rodríguez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2575 Blood disorders caused by hypophosphatemia in dairy cows https://revista-agroproductividad.org/index.php/agroproductividad/article/view/2578 <p><strong>O</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To describe the main blood disorders caused by hypophosphatemia (low P level in the blood) in dairy cows.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>Publications about blood disorders caused by hypophosphatemia in dairy cows were analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In addition to a decrease in milk production and several reproductive and metabolic disorders, hypophosphatemia can cause alterations in blood cells, mainly in erythrocytes, as a consequence of the decrease of the phosphorus (P) needed to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the alterations of the cell membrane phospholipids.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> Few studies have described how P affects different blood cells or their components.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>Hypophosphatemia has been associated with structural and functional alterations in blood cells.</p> Laura Patricia Valdez Aajona MONICA Ramírez-Mella Jacinto Efrén Ramírez Bribiesca Alvar Alonzo Cruz Tamayo María Teresa Torres-Sánchez Esqueda Libia Iris Trejo Téllez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i4.2578