Agro Productividad <p><strong>Agro Productividad</strong> es una publicación mensual del Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas. Fue fundada en 2008 con el objetivo de difundir resultados en artículos científicos originales, así como notas científicas, revisiones temáticas, relacionados con la agricultura (cultivos, silvicultura, ganadería, pesca y acuicultura, y agroindustria) y la producción de agroalimentos.</p> <p>También aborda temáticas sobre procesos económicos, sociales y ambientales que impactan la productividad agrícola y el desarrollo rural.</p> <p>Todas las contribuciones recibidas son sometidas a un proceso de arbitraje doble ciego y edición final. La revista se publica en español y en inglés. Se encuentra indexada a diferentes indicadores nacionales e internacionales resaltando <strong>CONACYT </strong>(Competencia Internacional), <strong>Zoological Records, CAB ABSTRACTS, CABI, Periodica, </strong> <strong>Latindex </strong>(Directorio y Catálogo), <strong>Biblat, Master List y Clarivate Analytics, REDIB.<br /></strong></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Colegio de Postgraduados es-ES Agro Productividad 2448-7546 Phenology of Four Varieties of Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in Greenhouses and Hydroponics for its Commercial Production in Mexico <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To measure the phenology, morphology and development of four varieties of<br />Physalis peruviana L. under greenhouse and hydroponics conditions, by effect of the ionic<br />strength of the Steiner nutrient solution for cultivation in Mexico.<br /><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> The research was conducted under a completely<br />random design with factorial arrangement, the treatments evaluated resulted from the<br />combination of the levels of the variety factor (Colombia, Sacha, Chiclayo and Modified)<br />with the levels of the ionic strength of the Steiner nutrient solution (50, 100 and 150%),<br />and the experimental unit was a potted plant. For phenology each phase was recorded in<br />the plants, SPAD readings were taken in the vegetative stage, for diameter and height<br />several samples were taken, and pH and electrical conductivity were accomplished on<br />stems and petioles of shoots of each treatment. An analysis of variance and the<br />comparison of means per Tukey (p ? 0.05) were implemented with the SAS 9.2 program.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The varieties under study showed differences in the time of occurrence of the<br />phenological stages. SPAD readings, basal diameter, pH and electrical conductivity in sap<br />were affected by each factor except for the interaction. Meanwhile, plant height was<br />significantly affected in the first 24 days after transplant (dat) by the combination of the<br />two factors.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> The results obtained are limited to the varieties, the<br />environmental conditions, and the time when the varieties were evaluated.<br />Conclusions: The phenology of each variety was not expressed at the same time in any<br />concentration, as an early variety was given to Chiclayo, Colombia and Sacha, which are<br />varieties that in the concentrations 50 and 150% of the nutrient solution started harvesting<br />at 99 dat.</p> Diego Ivan Orozco-Balbuena Manuel Sandoval-Villa María de las Nieves Rodríguez-Mendoza Oscar Martín Antúnez-Ocampo Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v14i3.1747 Characterization in Clonal Selections of Citrus X latifolia Tanaka ex Q. Jiménez <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To physically and chemically characterize clonal selections of Persian lime<br />(Citrus x latifolia Tanaka ex Q. Jiménez).<br /><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> The principal components analysis was employed,<br />using a mixed data factorial analysis model. Genotype distribution was graphed using<br />principal components with the k-medoids method, while a Gower’s dissimilarity matrix<br />was determined for the conglomerate analysis and a dendrogram was developed using<br />Ward’s minimum variance cluster method. For the morphological characterization of the<br />fruits, the study considered the following trees: Citrus volkameriana, Citrus macrophylla,<br />Citrus paradisi X Poncirus trifoliata, X Citroncirus spp., and Citrus X aurantium. The<br />fruit’s diameter, length, weight, color, and shape were analyzed, in addition to its base<br />shape, tip shape, surface texture, albedo adherence, number of seeds, ripening rate,<br />juice weight, juice yield, pH, °Brix, and titratable acidity. Data were analyzed using R<br />software and the factoextra and FactoMineR packages.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The physical and chemical traits of Persian lime fruit vary due to the<br />correlations between the types of rootstock that are cultivated in the citrus zone studied.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> Farmers do not know which clone or type of plant<br />material they propagate; they simply select clones that show outstanding morpho-<br />agronomical traits.<br /><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> The morphological diversity and quality of the fruit is related to<br />the type of rootstock used in its propagation, in addition to internal and external traits in<br />Citrus macrophylla standing out in fruit quality.</p> F. López-Fortoso M. T. González-Arnao J. E. Bulbarela-Marini M. C. Pastelín-Solano M. Guevara-Valencia P. Rascón-Díaz C. A. Cruz-Cruz Odón Castañeda Castro Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v14i3.1798 Sex Identification of in vitro Plants of Carica papaya L. MSXJ Hybrid through Molecular Markers <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To identify the sex of in vitro plants of papaya (Carica papaya L.) MSXJ<br />hybrid obtained via somatic organogenesis, through SCAR type molecular markers.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Eight-month old MSXJ papaya hybrid plants in the<br />fructification stage were collected in Cotaxtla, Veracruz, Mexico. They were<br />superficially disinfected with abundant running water, detergent during 30 min, and<br />then alcohol at 70% was added for one minute, commercial chlorine at 30% for 30<br />min, and they were rinsed with sterile distilled water; then the meristems were<br />cultivated in MS medium and after 30 d a subculture was made. The DNA extraction<br />was made with the CTAB method, and the DNA PCR was done with the Deputy et al.<br />(2002) method, and the primers T1, T12 and W11 were used.<br />Results: The T1 primer was the positive control and the T12 and W11 primers<br />allowed the amplification of fragments that identify hermaphrodite, feminine and male<br />plants, while the T12 and W11 primers were specific for hermaphrodite plants.Study <strong>Limitations/Implications:</strong> It is required to standardize the method for it to be<br />inexpensive.<br /><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> The sexuality of papaya plants can be differentiated until the<br />stage of flowering, which is why the implementation of molecular markers would<br />facilitate plant selection if it is implemented at a large scale. Costs, maintenance time<br />and elimination of plants of unwanted sex are reduced this way.</p> M. Nieto-Soriano María E. Galindo-Tovar Miriam C. Pastelín Solano Luis A. Solano Rodríguez Otto R. Leyva Ovalle Carlos Alberto Cruz-Cruz Odón Castañeda Castro Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v14i3.1799 In vitro Organogenesis of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. with Different Explants and Growth Regulators <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate various explants and growth regulators in order to improve in<br />vitro propagation of Stevia rebaudiana through organogenesis.<br /><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Explants and growth regulators in two different<br />concentrations were evaluated. The explants were nodal segment, axillary bud, and<br />apical meristem; while the growth regulators were benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 1.125 mg<br />L -1 and 3.0 mg L -1 , naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at 1.5 mg L -1 and 3.0 mg L -1 , and<br />CIDEF-4 brassinosteroids (BRs) at 1.0 mg L -1 and 1.5 mg L -1 . In total 18 treatments with<br />seven repetitions. Contamination, oxidation, and survival were recorded during<br />induction; while leaf number, regrowth height, and root presence were recorded during<br />multiplication.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> At the induction stage there was a differential response between explants<br />according to their ontogenetic age; during multiplication, the morphological components<br />showed differences between concentrations of growth regulators and explants, with<br />higher effectiveness when adding BAP to apical meristems.<br /><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> Both the origin and the age of explants can induce<br />differential growth while interacting with growth regulators.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>Apical meristem explants showed better advantages for in vitro<br />reproduction of S. rebaudiana since they present less contamination and higher survival<br />at the induction stage, even when exhibiting the highest oxidation among explants,<br />which did not influence the decrease in their survival. At the multiplication stage with<br />apical meristem, height, leaf number, and root presence were increased. Values were<br />high when interacting with BAP.</p> Juan Francisco Aguirre-Medina Ana Laura Gálvez-López Juan Francisco Aguirre-Cadena Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v14i3.1934 Genetic Uniformity of the MSXJ papaya hybrid (Carica papaya L.) during Micropropagation <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To analyze the genetic uniformity of MSXJ hybrid papaya in vitro plants, obtained by direct organogenesis.<br /><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> The MSXJ papaya hybrid demonstrates quality characteristics for the national and exports market. In vitro culture of plant tissues represents a useful tool for their multiplication and conservation, but somaclonal variation can diminish their genetic and agronomic uniformity. In order to analyze the genetic uniformity of in vitro plants of this hybrid, ten ISSR primers were used for in vitro plants micropropagated during nine subcultures. DNA was extracted using the CTAB method. Data were analyzed using the program PopGene v 1.3.1.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Eighty-five loci of 200 to up to 2000 pb were generated, with 37 polymorphic loci. In the cluster analysis, three groups were observed which separate subculture one, subcultures two to eight, and subculture nine; the Gst value of 0.87 indicated genetic uniformity as far as subculture eight.<br /><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> Papaya is one of the most important tropical fruits worldwide; however, these plants need to be healthy and genetically uniform to guarantee commercial success. In vitro propagation allows obtaining healthy and uniform plants, but it is necessary to study genetic uniformity during their micropropagation.<br /><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> The in vitro multiplication of the MSXJ papaya hybrid permitted the regeneration of vigorous plants in 30 d. Molecular profiles indicate that as far as subculture eight, there is genetic uniformity. As such, no more than<br />eight subcultures are recommended during micropropagation.</p> Dulce M. Ramírez-Hernández Odón Castañeda-Castro María Elena Galindo-Tovar Luis A. Solano Rodríguez Otto R. Leyva Ovalle Miriam C. Pastelín Solano Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v14i3.1831 Effect of Irrigation Volume on Biomass and Nutritional Value of Zea mays L. as Green Hydroponic Forage <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the effect of irrigation water volume on biomass production and<br />to quantify the nutritional value of green hydroponic maize forage (GHMF) for sheep.<br />Design/Methodology/Approach: Three treatments were used to evaluate water<br />irrigation volume: T1) 9.48 L m<sup> 2</sup> day<sup> -1</sup> ; T2) 18.95 L m <sup>2</sup> day <sup>-1</sup> ; and T3) 28.43 L m <sup>2</sup> day <sup>-1</sup> ,employing a completely randomized statistical block design. To determine nutritional<br />value, four inclusion levels of GHMF were used (0,20.40, 60% BS) in the diet of 16<br />sheep. A completely randomized statistical design was used as well as a linear<br />regression model.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> A greater weight in fresh biomass of GHMF was observed with T3 (P&amp;lt;0.01).<br />The values of apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF of GHMF oscillate<br />between 80 and 89%. The estimated digestible energy was 3.9 megacalories/kg DM.<br /><strong>Study Limitations/Implications: F</strong>orage production in the dry tropics is characterized<br />by being markedly seasonal; however, GHMF represents a viable alternative for the<br />rapid and sustainable production of forage with high nutritional value for animals.<br /><strong>Findings/Conclusions: T</strong>he greatest yields in fresh biomass of green hydroponic<br />maize forage are obtained by using a greater volume of irrigation water. Likewise, the forage has high nutritional value for sheep, with considerable delivery of digestible<br />energy, thus it can be used as an excellent source of forage in animal feeding.</p> Rosendo A Alcaraz-Romero Javier J. Cantón-Castillo Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-04-22 2021-04-22 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v14i3.1824 Vermicompost and Mycorrhizae Use on Cedrela odorata L. Growth in Nursery Conditions <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and the use of<br />vermicompost on the growth of red cedar (Cedrela odorata L.) seedlings under nursery<br />conditions.<br /><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The treatments were with and without a Glomus intraradices<br />inoculum, combined with different amounts of vermicompost in the growth substrate (0,<br />10, 20 and 30 %), in a completely randomized block design. The variables evaluated<br />were plant height (PH), stem diameter (SD), number of leaves (NL), dry weight (DW),<br />mycorrhizal colonization (MC) and number of spores (NS).<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The addition of vermicompost to the growth substrate improved the growth of<br />C. odorata seedlings, the best treatment being 30% of vermicompost without<br />mycorrhizae. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization and number of spores per 100<br />g of soil decreased when increasing the amount of vermicompost in the substrate.<br /><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> None.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> Vermicompost was the leading promoter of C. odorata plant<br />growth under nursery conditions.</p> Crescencio de la Cruz Castillo-Aguilar Ronald Ronald Ferrera-Cerrato Ricardo Antonio Chiquini- Medina Carlet Osmar † Chable-Chan Benito Bernardo Dzib Castillo Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v14i3.1820 Sustainability of Four Agroecosystems in the State of Veracruz, Mexico <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the sustainability of four agroecosystems in the state of<br />Veracruz, Mexico: sugarcane, maize grain, orange and moringa.<br /><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Producers that provided information about the<br />crops’ management were located. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to<br />identify critical points affecting sustainability, and the indicators were weighted using<br />the bottom-up criterion and the PSR model.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The most sustainable crop was moringa, and the least sustainable was<br />maize for grain. Conventional crops are characterized by being monoculture<br />plantations and demanding large amounts of non-renewable external inputs that<br />undermine their sustainability. Lack of technical training for producers was identified<br />as a critical point.<br /><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> The results obtained are limited to the analysis of<br />four production systems and their environmental, social and economic dimensions.<br /><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> Moringa is presented as an alternative crop with low<br />environmental impact that generates employment and strengthens social capital.</p> Juan Manuel Carrión Delgado Ofelia A. Valdés-Rodríguez Felipe Gallardo-López Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-05-04 2021-05-04 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v14i3.1760 Socioeconomic and competitive positioning of livestock chains in Zacatecas, Mexico <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the positioning of the most important livestock production<br />chains in Zacatecas, Mexico, within a matrix of socioeconomic importance and<br />market competitiveness, and to identify research and technology transfer needs.<br /><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Arranging livestock production chains into a<br />hierarchy was carried out based on the methodology proposed by the International<br />Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR), taking as analysis axis the<br />dimensions of socioeconomic importance and competitiveness. The six most<br />outstanding livestock production chains in the state were selected.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The results placed the beef cattle chains as sustainable, the goat and<br />sheep chains were placed as vulnerable, pork and honey were located in the<br />retraction quadrant due to their low socioeconomic importance and competitiveness,<br />and dairy cattle was placed in the strained quadrant.<br /><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> It is important to take into account other links.<br /><strong>Findings/Conclusions</strong>: Strategies for livestock production chains involve making<br />the production more efficient through sustainable practices, providing technical assistance to producers, conducting research to generate technology, investing in<br />infrastructure, and generating products with added value that meet the needs of<br />consumers.</p> Blanca Isabel Sánchez Toledano JORGE ZEGBE-DOMÍNGUEZ VENANCIO CUEVAS REYES Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v14i3.1801 Erosion and control options in the La Ciénega Microbasin in Malinaltepec, Guerrero, Mexico <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To estimate the water erosion rate in the La Ciénega Microbasin in<br />Malinaltepec, Guerrero, Mexico, and to evaluate control options.<br /><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> Potential erosion rate, actual erosion rate, and<br />erosion control were estimated using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) under<br />three conservation practices: contour plowing, successive land terracing, and live<br />terracing with vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty).<br /><strong>Results:</strong> High erosion potential is shown by 99.18% of the microbasin surface area.<br />Due to vegetation, only 41% of the surface area demonstrates high or very high actual<br />erosion, 53.6% light, and 4.6% moderate. A living barrier using vetiver is the only<br />conservation practice, of those assessed, that effectively diminished erosion.<br /><strong>Study limitations/implications:</strong> The lack of accurate data on rain-induced erosion was<br />a limiting factor in this study.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> The La Ciénega Microbasin has a high risk of erosion and<br />current erosion is a problem on agricultural land. The most effective option is living<br />barriers using vetiver.</p> Javier Bailón-Miranda Angel Bustamante González Samuel Vargas-López Juan Morales-Jiménez Miguel A. Casiano-Ventura Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v13i10.1751 Evaluation of producer inflation, subsidies and profitability of vegetables and grains in Sinaloa, 2018-2019 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate producer inflation, equity in PROCAMPO subsidy distribution, as well as profitability of eight agricultural products in the state of Sinaloa, 2018-2019 cycle.<br /><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> First, inflation is estimated in the value of agricultural production, using the agricultural producer price index (INPP) base 2019. Second, the inequality in the allocation of PROCAMPO is calculated with Lorenz curves. Third, the internal rate of return (IRR) is estimated for the eight products and compared with the 28-day yield of the treasury certificates (CETES).<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The current values generated show growth in cereals (corn, wheat), and vegetables (tomato, chili peppers), with downward inflationary gaps in the period 2000-2019. There is a concentration of the PROCAMPO allocation in producers<br />with high income deciles. The IRR is high in vegetables, and low in corn and beans.<br />Study Limitations/Implications: This study does not specify the size of the productive unit and only the data is generalized. It does not address marketing channels and their destinations.<br /><strong>Findings/Conclusions</strong>: The producer is assuming the inflationary increase. Income transfers via PROCAMPO are<br />inequitable. The IRR in corn and beans is sometimes less profitable than CETES.</p> C. G. Borbón-Morales Miguel A. Martínez-Téllez EDGAR OMAR RUEDA PUENTE Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v14i3.1829 Effect of activated carbon on the nitrogen balance in broilers, soil and corn forage fertilized with the excreta of the broilers <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the contribution and nitrogen retention in broilers supplemented<br />with activated carbon (CaAc), as well and in soils and corn forage fertilized with the excreta<br />of chickens that consumed CaAc.<br /><strong>Design / methodology / approach:</strong> Chickens individually housed received diets with four<br />levels of CaAc: 0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45% and their nitrogen balance was determined using<br />the total collection of excreta. 200 g of the chicken excreta were taken and mixed with 2 kg<br />of soil (S + E) in plastic trays and watered every 15 d. On day 1 and 60, samples were<br />taken to perform the nitrogen balance assessment. The S + E mixtures were added to 17<br />kg of agricultural soil in pots to produce corn forage for 100 d, their yield and composition<br />were recorded. The results were analyzed with an ANOVA and linear regression.<br /><strong>Findings / conclusion:</strong> In chickens, nitrogen retention showed a quadratic response (P<br />&amp;lt;0.05); In the S + E mixtures, the percentage (P &amp;lt;0.01) and final nitrogen content (P &amp;lt;0.05) had also quadratic responses, and in the forage, the nitrogen percentage showed a cubicresponse (P &amp;lt;0.05) respect to the increases in the addition of CaAc in the chicken´s diet. CaAc can be used to improve the nitrogen efficiency in chickens and for nitrogen recycling through the integration of excreta in agricultural soils and its extraction in corn forage.</p> María de Lourdes Angeles Sergio Gómez-Rosales Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v14i14.1762 Reproductive evaluation of bucks (Capra hircus L.) with usual management in herds from Benito Juarez, Guerrero, Mexico <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the reproductive characteristics of male goats (Capra hircus L.)<br />with habitual management on their herds at Benito Juarez municipality, Guerrero, Mexico.<br /><strong>Design / methodology / approach:</strong> Ten male Creole goats from seven herds were<br />evaluated, aged between 2 to 7 years and 2 to 3 body condition (BC). The males were<br />evaluated regarding their sexual behavior, sperm quality, physical examination and<br />reproductive clinical evaluation.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> All the assessed male Creole goats displayed sexual behavior (P &amp;lt; 0.05).<br />However, for the males of three of the evaluated herds the sexual behavior was lower (P &amp;lt; 0.05). Of the ten electro-ejaculated males, 20% ejaculated and 80% did not (P &amp;lt; 0.05). From the males that ejaculated, a sperm concentration of 224 x 106 and 16 x 106 sperm<br />mL -1 was recorded for the first and second male. Finally, the physical and clinical<br />reproductive evaluation concurred with the established parameters for the species.<br /><strong>Limitations of the study / implications</strong>: Under the conditions in which the study was<br />carried out, it was not possible to evaluate males in the same age conditions and<br />reproductive characteristics. However, this allowed collecting information from field<br />conditions so that producers can apply it for herd improvement.<br /><strong>Findings / conclusions:</strong> The male Creole goats of the evaluated herds showed intense<br />sexual behavior with low sperm characteristics.</p> Pedro E. Hernández-Ruiz Ethel C. García y González Blanca C. Pineda-Burgos Enoc Flores-López Edgar Valencia-Franco Martín Carmona-Victoria José V. Velázquez-Morales José Luis Ponce Covarrubias Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v14i3.1821 Analysis of the beef supply in Veracruz, Jalisco and Chiapas states, Mexico, 2000-2019 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> to determine the effect of the variables that impact the supply of beef in Veracruz, Jalisco and Chiapas states, Mexico, from 2000 to 2019.<br /><strong>Methodological design/approach:</strong> a multiple linear regression model was used; where the supply was the dependent variable and the price of beef, corn price and annual rainfall were the explanatory variables.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> the dynamics of the beef production in Veracruz, Jalisco and Chiapas were directly and inelastically explainedby its price with a value of 0.89, 0.13 and 0.49; inversely and inelastically by the price of corn (-0.05, 0.005 and -0.05)and directly and inelastically by the state annual precipitation (0.16, 0.01 and 0.21).<br /><strong>Study limitations/implications</strong>: it is suggested to test the statistical and economic significance with the Cobb-Douglas supply models to contrast their elasticities.<br /><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> the variable that explained the dynamics of bovine production in these Mexican states was the price of the product, while the price of corn was the one with the least impact</p> Eulogio Rebollar Rebollar Samuel Rebollar Rebollar Eugenio Guzmán Soria Juvencio Hernández Martínez Felipe de Jesús González Razo Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v14i3.1827 Analysis of the invasion of water lilies (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms) in the Cointzio dam, Michoacán, Mexico <p><strong>Objective:</strong> to analyze the growth dynamics of the water lily (Eichhornia crassipes)<br />in the Cointzio dam due to the water availability.<br /><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> a monthly series of 45 Sentinel 2 and Landsat<br />satellite images were used, with which the percentage of invasion of the water lily<br />in the total area of the reservoir was calculated. The relative coverage of the lily<br />was analyzed looking for growth patterns over time, as well as the precipitation<br />data, total reservoir area over time, and water storage data for the 2010-2020<br />period to broaden its context.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: Three ascending and two descending patterns of the water lily coverage<br />were identified; a 15-month upward growth pattern with slight inland slope changes; decreasing patterns are associated with decreased water storage. The<br />largest lily covers were found in critical storage stages during the 2010-2020<br />period.<br /><strong>Study limitations/implications:</strong> faced with climate change conditions, the filling<br />pattern of the dam could change, aggravating problems related to the water supply.<br />Conclusions: containment/mitigation efforts have a reduced effect because the lily<br />easily recovers the covered area, growing about 400% between October 2017 and<br />June 2018, therefore it is necessary to implement a containment strategy using the<br />biophysical interactions of the basin in conjunction with social, political, economic<br />and governance interactions.</p> Omar R. Vera-Vargas Jorge V. Prado-Hernández Delfino Reyes-López Fermin Pascual Ramirez Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v14i14.1828 Forage yield of Urochloa brizantha [(Hochst. Ex A. Rich.) R.D.] cv. Insurgente at different cutting heights <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Evaluate the forage yield of Urochloa brizantha cv. Insurgente at different<br />cutting heights.<br /><strong>Design/ methodology/ approach:</strong> the experiment was carried out at the Universidad<br />del Papaloapan, Loma Bonita, Oaxaca, Mexico. Four cutting heights were evaluated (5,<br />10, 15, and 20 cm) during the rainy, norther, and dry seasons. The experiment followed<br />a randomized block design with four replicates. We evaluated plant height (PH), green<br />matter yield (GMY), dry matter yield (DMY), growth rate (GR), and morphological<br />components, such as leaf yield (LY), sheath yield (SY), and stem yield (StY).<br /><strong>Results:</strong> the cutting height and season interaction was significant for all the evaluated<br />variables (P?0.01). The highest PH (42 cm) was obtained with a cutting height of 20 cmduring the rainy season. The highest GMY and DMY (2,484 and 606 kg ha -1 ,<br />respectively) were obtained with cutting heights of 15 cm during the rainy season. These<br />values were similar (P&amp;gt;0.05) to those obtained at 20 cm (2,410 and 582 kg ha -1 ,<br />respectively). The highest LY, SY, and StY values were obtained with cutting heights of<br />15 and 20 cm during the rainy season. The highest GR (31 kg MS ha -1 day -1 ) was<br />observed during the rainy season, regardless of cutting height.<br /><strong>Findings/ conclusions:</strong> for each of the evaluated seasons, cutting heights of 15 and 20<br />cm resulted in the highest forage yields of U. brizantha cv. Insurgente.</p> Bertín Maurilio Joaquín-Torres Usiel Reyes-Campechano Jesús Alberto Ramos-Juárez Emilio Manuel Aranda-Ibañez Jorge Armando Villarreal-González Joaquín-Cancino Santiago Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 14 3 10.32854/agrop.v14i2.1961