Procurement and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from cassava bagasse (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

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Mónica S. Correa-Durán
Gloria I. Bolio-López
Lucien Veleva
Rogelio Ramírez-Casillas
Manuel M. Hernández-Villegas
Patricia de la Cruz-Burelo
Samuel Córdova-Sánchez
Cintya Valerio-Cárdenas

Keywords

Cassava, cellulose nanocrystals, physicochemical characterization.

Resumen

Objective: To procure and characterize cellulose nanocrystals from cassava bagasse.


Design/methodology/approach: Cellulose nanocrystals were obtained from cassava bagasse by acid hydrolysis (HCI), ultrasonication, centrifugation, dialysis, deep freezing and lyophilization. The cassava bagasse and the cellulose nanocrystals obtained were physicochemically characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Coupled Elemental Analysis (SEM-EDS). As an additional technique, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used.


Results: The analyses performed show that the cellulose obtained was type Iβ. This study reports a percentage of crystallinity of the cassava bagasse cellulose of 37.1%, increasing the percentage to 48% crystallinity in cellulose nanocrystals. The diameters of the cassava bagasse fibers were reported to be 2 μm and their elemental composition (SEM-EDS) mainly constituted by carbon (C), oxygen (O) and traces of nitrogen (N). The morphology observed through AFM of the nanocrystals of cassava bagasse (Manihot esculenta) was rod-shaped, with helicoidal appearance without residual charge, with diameters between 8.7 and 9.3 nm.


Limitations on study/implications: The acid hydrolysis process showed a low percentage of crystallinity, although higher than other works reported for cassava bagasse.


Findings/conclusions: The results obtained confirm the possibility of obtaining cellulose nanocrystals from cassava bagasse (Manihot esculenta).

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