biosynthesis, flavonoids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, chlorophyll
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is the fifth most cultivated plant in the world. One way to classify mango is according to the color of the skin; mangoes are classified as green, yellow and red. Color is a visual attribute that defines consumer preference in some countries. This pigmentation diversity is defined by families of genes that encode for protein production, which lead to biosynthetic pathways responsible for the production of vitamins and vitamin precursors. In Mexico there is a wide range of colors in the native mango germplasm, which could represent an important source of antioxidants, pigments and would bring benefits to the human health of Mexicans, through the consumption of the fresh fruits, or the commercial/industrial exploitation
of these. According to the literature, this diversity of colors represents a genetic richness that could be exploited in the genetic breeding programs of the species in the country, to generate new varieties with desirable characteristics in the national and international market. In order to gather and discuss information that contributes to the understanding of the biochemical and genetic processes that determine such pigmentation and the production of vitamins in mango, this review describes the main genes involved and the biosynthetic pathways of the most common pigments, considering the impact on human health when they are consumed, and highlighting the challenges and opportunities that could be derived from the utilization of pigments
from the Mexican germplasm.