Reproductive aspects of the male jaguar (Panthera onca): A review


E. López-Pérez
F. Cortés-Villavicencio
C. Muñoz-García
J. Gallegos-Sánchez
Alejandro Ávalos-Rodríguez


semen; free-living felids; physiology; reproduction.


Objective: To describe the anatomy, morphology and physiology of the reproductive system of male jaguars, as well as assisted reproduction techniques.

Methodology: A literature review on the anatomy and morphology of the jaguar´s reproductive system, its physiological characteristics and assisted reproduction techniques were carried out to document relevant information on the topic.

Results: With this review, basic aspects of the morphology of the reproductive system of the jaguars are disclosed, although scarce knowledge is available on their reproduction. The advances in the collection, evaluation and cryopreservation of semen of this feline are shown, in addition to assisted reproduction techniques such as artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization, which have a great potential to safeguard the species.

Study limitations: The jaguar, an emblematic species of Latinamerica, is an endangered species, like other wild felids species as ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and margay (Leopardus wiedii), which makes it necessary to have a national assisted reproduction program. However, for this to be possible, information about their reproductive physiology is necessary, which is complicated in wild animals and even more so because the reproductive mechanisms greatly differ between felids species. There is scarce information in this regard from its free-living or Mexican zoos, it is for this reason necessary to generate such information.

Conclusions: It is necessary to continue working on designing protocols for artificial insemination and other assisted reproduction techniques such as in-vitro fertilization specifically for male Panthera onca.

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