Biological effectiveness of quillay (Quillaja saponaria) extracts for the control of yellow aphids (Melanaphis sacchari) in sorghum

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Sergio Ramírez-Rojas
Alejandro Palacios-Talavera
Jorge M. P. Vázquez-Alvarado
Jesús O. Pérez-González
Juan C. Bartolo-Reyes

Keywords

aphids, vegetable extracts, Sorghum bicolor, agroecological management.

Resumen

Objective: To evaluate and define a plant extract for the control of the yellow aphid in order to prevent environmental contamination and improve crop profitability.


Design/Methodology/Approach: In a sorghum plot —located in the municipality of Jantetelco, Morelos— with a high incidence of yellow aphids, three doses —2-, 4-, and 6-mL L-1 of water of Quillaja saponaria extract, 0.2-mL L-1 of water of Imidacloprid, and 10-mL L-1 of water of calcium polysulfide—, as well as an absolute control, were evaluated. The applications were carried out using a 15-L manual spray backpack, which had been previously calibrated and had a fan nozzle. A randomized block experimental design—with six treatments and four repetitions— was used. The experimental unit was made up of five 5-m long rows with 0.70 m between rows, resulting in a 17.5 m2 total area per experimental unit. The three central furrows were the useful plot, leaving 0.5 m at each end of the furrow. The total size of the experimental plot was 420 m2.


Results: The biological effectiveness during the samplings was as follows: both the Quillaja saponaria (6-, 4- and 2-mL L-1 water doses) and Imidacloprid treatments had a 100% effectiveness.


Study limitations/implications: This study was carried out in sorghum crops.


Findings/conclusions: Treatments based on Quillaja saponaria extracts on M. sacchari in sorghum crops showed 100% biological effectiveness from the first application and no phytotoxicity was observed in any treatment

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