AgroProductividad <p>La Revista <strong>Agro Productividad</strong> es una publicación mensual del Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas con sede en Texcoco, México. Fue fundada en 2008 con el objetivo de difundir resultados en artículos científicos originales, así como notas científicas, revisiones temáticas y ensayos científicos relacionados con la agricultura (cultivos, silvicultura, ganadería, pesca y acuicultura, y agroindustria) y la producción de agroalimentos. También aborda temáticas sobre procesos económicos, sociales y ambientales que impactan la productividad agrícola y el desarrollo rural.</p> <p>Todas las contribuciones recibidas son sometidas a un proceso de arbitraje doble ciego y edición final. La revista se publica en español y en inglés. Se encuentra indexada a diferentes indicadores nacionales e internacionales resaltando <strong>CONACYT </strong>(Competencia Internacional), <strong>Zoological Records, CAB ABSTRACTS, CABI, Periodica, </strong> <strong>Latindex </strong>(Directorio y Catálogo), <strong>Biblat, Master List y Clarivate Analytics, REDIB.<br /></strong></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Colegio de Postgraduados es-ES AgroProductividad 2448-7546 Thysanoptera diversity associated with Mexican lemon (Citrus aurantifolia Christm.) <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To calculate the monthly relative abundance of <em>Thysanoptera</em> species, according to the Margalef, Simpson and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices.</p> <p><strong>Design / Methodology / Approach: </strong>The work was carried out in three geographic units with conventional management, during January-December, 2019 in the Reserva de la Biosfera Zicuirán-Infiernillo (Biosphere Reserve), Michoacán, Mexico. In each unit, 10 trees were selected through simple random sampling. Thrips counts were performed on ten shoots per tree every 15 d, for a total of 7200 shoots in the three geographic units. Thysanoptera individuals were placed in entomological jars. The variables were: number of thrips collected per shoot in sampled tree and geographic unit (orchard). To estimate the specific richness and structure of species, the program "calculation of diversity indices DIVERS" was used.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In the three geographical units studied, the recorded presence of <em>Thysanoptera</em> accounted for 12 to 17 species. For Nueva Italia 12 recorded species, two were permanent (16.66%), five abundant (41.66%), one scarce (8.3%) and four rare (33.33%). In Zicuirán, three species were permanent (17.64%), six abundant (35.29%), two scarce (11.76%) and six rare (35.29%). In Los Hoyos, four species were permanent (26.66%), four abundant (26.66%) and seven rare (46.66%). The abundance of species was represented by the genus <em>Frankliniella</em> and the species <em>Scolothrips sexmaculatus </em>and <em>Scirtothrips citri</em>. The highest species richness and abundance was found from January to May. In October and November, the value of the calculated indices was zero, which shows less richness and abundance of individuals. The best species uniformity was recorded during January and December, which meant a more stable and homogeneous relation.</p> <p><strong>Study limitations/Implications.</strong> Pest resurgence, presence of <em>Candidatus Liberibacter</em> spp. and its vector <em>Diaphorina citri</em>.</p> <p><strong>Findings / Conclusions: </strong>in Nueva Italia, 12 species were taxonomically determined; in Los Hoyos 15, and in Zicuirán 17 species, which are reported for the first time in the state of Michoacán, Mexico. At the geographic unit "Los Hoyos" diversity was higher, uniform and stable.</p> Francisco Javier Avendaño-Gutiérrez Salvador Aguirre Paleo Alejandro Morales Hernández Venecia Quesadas-Béjar Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-08-24 2020-08-24 13 9 10.32854/ Study of the quality and antioxidant properties of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under different postharvest and dehydration conditions <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To study the effect of storage temperatures and dehydration conditions (solar and convective drying; SD, CD), on the quality, physicochemical parameters and antioxidant properties of tomato fruits.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The physicochemical characteristics pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids (°Bx) and color parameters (<em>L*</em>, <em>a*</em> and <em>b*</em>), were evaluated. The lycopene, carotenoids and antioxidant activity percentages retention of tomatoes fruits stored at 7 and 22 ° C for 5 days and subjected to SD (Temperature (T) of 67 °C and luminescence of 685 lum/sqf) and CD (T 70 °C, flow rates 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m/s), were analyzed<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The fruits reached humidities of 17 and 15% for SD and CD. The parameters pH, °Bx, <em>L*,</em> <em>a*, b*</em> were highest with 22°C and CD (1.5 m/s). The value of the carotenoids was higher in fruits stored at 7 ° C and subjected to CD (1.0 and 1.5 m/s) and SD with values of 83.85, 85.98 and 99.43%, respectively. The CD (0.5 m/s) and SD improved lycopene (94.37 and 95.14%) and the antioxidant activity with values of 73.06 and 97.21%.</p> <p><strong>Implications: </strong>The application of solar dehydration depends on luminescence condition; however, it is inexpensive and environmentally friendly alternative.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The results derived in a viable alternative for the conservation and commercialization of tomato fruits in rural communities</p> María Lorena Luna-Guevara Teresita González-Sánchez Adriana Delgado-Alvarado María Elena Ramos-Cassellis José Guillermo Pérez-Luna Juan José Luna-Guevara Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-08-24 2020-08-24 13 9 10.32854/ Unconventional plants as a source of phytochemicals for broiler chicken <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To carry out a review to know the modes of action and the commercial application of unconventional plants as growth promoters in broiler chicken production.<br /><strong>Design / Methodology/Approach:</strong> A bibliographic review of unconventional and commonly used plants was carried out, which have shown efficacy as growth promoters on broiler chickens.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Numerous reports have demonstrated the efficacy of phytochemicals present in plants as antioxidants, antimicrobials, and immune-stimulants.<br /><strong>Limitations of the study / Implications:</strong> Alternative use of unconventional plants can help to develop sustainable production systems and the production of innocuous meat products.<br /><strong>Findings / Conclusions:</strong> The use of additives of natural origin in poultry feed represents a viable option to replace or reduce the use of antibiotics and growth promoters on broiler chickens.</p> José Alfredo Martínez Aispuro José Luis Figueroa Velasco María Teresa Sánchez-Torres José Luis Cordero Mora Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-08-24 2020-08-24 13 9 10.32854/ Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation in Citrus volkameriana Tan &amp; Pasq <p><strong>Objective. </strong>We evaluated the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation in Citrus<br />volkameriana Tan &amp;amp; Pasq plants with the application of Glomus spp Zac- 19 (G.<br />claroides, G. diaphanum and G. albidum) to assess growth under greenhouse<br />conditions without fertilizer application<strong>.<br />Methodology. </strong>The evaluated treatments were inoculation with 2,4,6,8, and 10 g of<br />inoculum, plus a control without inoculation in an experimental design of complete<br />randomized blocks with three replications. Variables were plant height, stem diameter,<br />number of leaves, foliar area, dry weight, and mycorrhizal colonization.<strong><br />Results. </strong>A statistically significant response (p?0.01) to inoculation was<br />observed, registering higher growth of mycorrhizal plants. The inoculation was<br />considered appropriate for all the levels evaluated. The outstanding treatment was 10 g<br />of inoculum that produced plants with 110.16 cm in height for the last sampling; 38.56<br />leaves per plant; 1.13 cm stem diameter; 35.95 g dry weight of root; 76.88 g dry weight<br />of the aerial part of the plant; 225.03 cm 2 of leaf area per plant and 88.87% of<br />mycorrhizal colonization.<strong><br />Conclusions. </strong>The application of 10 g per plant to the roots of Citrus volkameriana from<br />the Glomus Zac-19 arbuscular mycorrhizal consortium promoted the production of more<br />vigorous plants for grafting, without the application of chemical fertilizer.</p> Crescencio de la C. Castillo-Aguilar G. May-Chablé Víctor Hugo Quej Ricardo Antonio Chiquini-Medina Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-08-24 2020-08-24 13 9 10.32854/agrop.v13i9.1637 Phenology and quality of habanero pepper fruits (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) due to nutrient solution in hydroponics <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the phenological development and fruit quality of habanero<br />pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) with three nutrient solutions.<br /><strong>Design / Methodology / Approach:</strong> In a hydroponic system the nutrient solutions<br />of Steiner, Hoagland and Soria were used to evaluate the phenology, morphology<br />and pungency (spicy-hotness) of the habanero pepper fruits.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> It was observed that the nutrient solution of Soria brought flowering 4 d<br />ahead, but it delayed fruiting by 2 d compared to the other treatments. Steiner<br />solution incremented length (4 cm), diameter (2.9 cm), weight (8 g) and moisture<br />content (89%) of the fruit compared to the other nutrient solutions. Capsaicin and<br />dihydrocapsaicin increased in plants watered with Steiner nutrient solutions (24<br />and 12.5 mg g -1 , respectively) and Soria (23 and 12.7 mg g -1 , respectively), as well<br />as Scoville units (&amp;gt; 538,000).<br /><strong>Study limitations / Implications:</strong> Although favorable results were found in some<br />treatments, more studies are required to evaluate the nutrient composition of the<br />different organs of habanero pepper plants, by phenological stages.<br /><strong>Findings / Conclusions:</strong> Considering phenology, fruit quality and capsaicinoids<br />content, the Steiner nutrient solution could be a suitable option for cultivating<br />habanero peppers in hydroponic systems.</p> Rocío E. Meneses-Lazo Sealtiel May-Lugo Eduardo Villanueva-Couoh Kati Medina-Dzul Ileana Echevarría-Machado René Garruña Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-08-24 2020-08-24 13 9 10.32854/ Risk factors associated with mastitis and raw milk quality in small farms of Texcoco, México <p><strong>Objective:</strong> to determine the nutritional and physicochemical quality, and the presence<br />of aflatoxins in raw milk, as well as risk factors for developing mastitis in 20 family farms<br />in the region of Texcoco, Mexico.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> MilkoSCan FT1 was used for nutritional and physicochemical analysis of<br />milk. Somatic cells were quantified and the cow’s health status was tested using<br />Somaticell; furthermore, the presence of Aflatoxin M1 was determined using lateral flow<br />immunochromatography.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> the milk evaluated in this study reported normal nutritional values according to<br />NMX-F-700-COFOCALEC-2012, which guarantees its quality for human consumption.<br />The pH ranged from 5.0 to 8.4, which indicates deficient temperature control in some<br />farms, leading to problems with acidity. The logistical analysis showed that adequate<br />udder cleaning during milking is important to avoid it being a risk factor for an increase<br />in somatic cells and degree of mastitis, although not the milking technique or teat<br />sealing. The presence of aflatoxin AFM1 was not reported in raw milk.<br />Study implications: the Somaticell® technique renders a qualitative and efficient<br />diagnosis of clinical mastitis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> raw milk quality from this region guarantees consumers with a safe and<br />apt product for human consumption or transformation into dairy byproducts.</p> Yadira Guadalupe Hernández Vázquez J. G. Herrera-Haro M. M. Crosby-Galván M.E. Ortega-Cerrilla Y. Bautista-Martínez B. Godínez-Contreras Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-08-24 2020-08-24 13 9 10.32854/ Characterization of Stakeholders in the Value Chain and Commercialization Channels of String Cheese in Vega de Alatorre, Veracruz, México <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Characterize Stakeholders in the Value Chain and Commercialization<br />Channels of String Cheese in Vega de Alatorre, Veracruz, México.<br /><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study was performed in the period June-August 2019, including 61<br />surveys responded by milk producers and 22 dairy product processers (cheesemakers).<br />Local Agri-food Systems (LAFS) and value chain approaches were applied.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The value chain of string cheese in this municipality consists of providers of<br />supplies, dairy cattle breeders, gatherers, cheesemakers, sellers, and final consumers.<br />String cheese is commercialized through 5 channels: (a) products are distributed by<br />cheesemakers to wholesalers and retailers, (b) products are sold in food stores,<br />establishments or restaurants within the region, (c) products are sold to distributors who<br />buy the product directly in the factory, d) direct sale in a grocery or traditional dairy store<br />in the municipality and (e) products are sold at small-scale to final consumers in houses.<br />Study Limitations: Distrust of some stakeholders to provide information for the study,<br />due to the insecurity in the state of Veracruz.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Limitations were found in the development and integration of the value<br />chain. The sale of cheese is carried out without sales contracts or cooperation<br />agreements. Prices are set subjectively by the dominant stakeholder, and in order to<br />influence the market price, producers and processors arbitrarily make conditional on the<br />supply or demand for milk and cheese, which creates market failures and inefficiencies.</p> Ingrid Liliana Gómez-Huesca Pablo Díaz-Rivera Ponciano Pérez-Hernández Jorge Aguilar-Ávila Julio Vilaboa-Arroniz Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-08-24 2020-08-24 13 9 10.32854/ The importance of environmental education in students: analyzing the transition from middle to high school in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico <p><strong>Objective:</strong> A poll on first-semester high school students (n = 246) took place at Nuevo<br />Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, to find out if they received environmental education as an<br />extracurricular class during middle school and how this training could influence their<br />perceptions and positions on environmental issues.<br /><strong>Design/methodology/approach</strong>: A questionnaire that contained aspects regard water<br />culture, recycling, species care and transportation, as well as general knowledge of the<br />environment and its regulations, was applied to students. The SPSS statistical software was<br />used to categorize two groups: students who received extracurricular environmental<br />education and those who did not. Subsequently, the non-parametric Mann Whitney tests<br />were performed on the data.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the total number of participants, 167 said they had received extracurricular<br />environmental education in middle school. The other 79 participants reported not to have<br />done so. Students who received more environmental education in middle school exhibit a<br />better attitude regard water management.</p> <p><strong>Limitations of the study/implications:</strong> To interpret the results, it is necessary to consider<br />that the study took place only in the city of Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas and that a<br />convenience sampling was used.<br /><strong>Findings / Conclusions:</strong> There are still students that do not receive enough environmental<br />education. We conclude that it is important to intensify efforts to change this situation, as<br />environmental training has shown to positively influence the attitudes of students who<br />received it.</p> Juan A. Herrera-Izaguirre Ramón Ventura Roque Hernández Yuritzi Llamas-Mangin Carlos M. Juárez-Ibarra Cynthia L. Ramos-Monsivais Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-08-24 2020-08-24 13 9 10.32854/ Evaluation of the productivity and rooting of cuttings of ten Eucalyptus clones <p><strong>Objective:</strong> evaluating the productivity of mother plants and the rooting percentage of cuttings of <em>Eucalyptus grandis</em>, <em>Eucalyptus urophylla</em> and <em>Eucalyptus urograndis</em>.</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong> Ten clones of each species were evaluated in a clonal miniature garden in a gutter system fitted with drip irrigation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The assessed number of sprouts and viable cuttings variables registered high significant differences (P &lt;0.0001) between clones: UP1 (17,947 shoots and 34.05 viable cuttings), UG2 (12,120 shoots and 22.96 viable cuttings) and G2 (10,254 shoots and 23.96 viable cuttings). Regard the measured parameters in the irrigation water, the average values of EC 0.5 mS/cm and pH 5 to 7 were obtained. The stem cuttings established in the module had high significant differences (P &lt;0.0001) in terms of the rooting percentage. Three clones were superior, the best of which, clone G2, reports 78.58% rooting, which developed in environmental conditions of relative humidity greater than 80% and temperature between 25-30 ° C.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> With the obtained values from the measured variables, a rooting productivity projection was carried out considering a 54 mother plants / m<sup>2</sup> density, resulting in a minimum average annual production of viable cuttings from 10,000 to 27,000 depending on the clone, with 2,000 to 18,000 cuttings with rooting possibilities per square meter.</p> MARYNOR ELENA ORTEGA RAMIREZ Adrian Castro-Osorio Nicolás González-Cortés Jesús Prados-Coronado Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-10-14 2020-10-14 13 9 10.32854/agrop.v13i9.1695 Growth and nutritional value of the silage of two cultivars of Pennisetum purpureum at different ages <p><strong>Objetiv</strong><strong>e:</strong> To evaluate the growth, chemical composition and quality of the silage of 45 d and 60 d cuts of <em>Pennisetum purpureum </em>sp<em>. </em>Gigante and <em>Pennisetum</em> <em>purpureum </em>cv. Taiwan grasses.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approximation:</strong> The study took place at the Germplasm Bank of the Rosario Izapa Experimental Field in Tuxtla Chico, Chiapas, Mexico. Chemical analysis of the silage determined crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF), crude fiber (CF), ash (A), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and pH. Plant height, leaf length, leaf width and stem diameter were also determined. A completely randomized design was used with three repetitions per treatment as per PROC GLM and means comparison using the Tukey procedure.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The CP content of both grasses decreased in the 45 d to 60 d period; from 7.18 % to 5.36 % in Taiwan grass and from 7.53 % to 6.05 % in <em>Pennisetum </em>sp<em>. </em>Gigante. Plant height, length and width of leaf, and stem diameter were greater in the Taiwan variety (P&lt;0.05) at 30 d, 45 d and 60 d; the pH of the silage was similar in both grasses evaluated (P&gt;0.05) at 45 d and 60 d.</p> <p><strong>Study limitations /implications</strong><strong>: </strong>A review during low water periods is required (December-April).</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> Taiwan grass registered a greater growth rate in all periods; while Gigante grass showed higher nutritional value at 45 and 60 days of cutting.</p> Cándido Enrique Guerra Medina CARLOS HUGO AVENDAÑO ARRAZATE Oziel Dante Montañez-Valdez Jose de Jesus Madonado Méndez Alejandro Ley de Coss Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-10-14 2020-10-14 13 9 10.32854/ INVENTORIES IN THE SUGAR MARKET IN MEXICO <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the minimum inventory which guarantees the domestic consumption supply and sugar exports in Mexico. The hypothesis was that an optimal inventory would lower storage costs and increase the sugar producers’ income.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> To achieve the objective a spatial and temporal equilibrium model applied to the Mexican sugar market for the 2015 sugar cycle was formulated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The sugar industry in Mexico maintains an average monthly inventory of 831 thousand tons of sugar, a high inventory for most of the year. The inventory level could decrease to 416 thousand tons, given that this level guarantees the supply of the domestic demand and exports in the assessed year.</p> <p><strong>Implications:</strong> A management policy that keeps sugar inventories at their minimum level allows for a reduction of storage costs by 594 million pesos (MXN) and increases the income of the sugar producers by 635 million pesos (MXN).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Due to the positive effects on the producer's income, it is recommended that the sugar sector promotes a minimum inventory policy.</p> José Alberto García-Salazar Luis Alberto Flores Cruz Mercedes Borja Bravo Pedro Ruben Aquino Mercado Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-08-24 2020-08-24 13 9 10.32854/agrop.v13i9.1640 Tourism awareness as a tourism development strategy: status of the issue <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Tourism has become the main engine of economic, social and environmental development in several countries, so promoting tourism awareness among tourists and the local population should be a priority. The present study aims to suggest a status of the research carried out on the topic of tourism awareness.</p> <p><strong>Design / methodology / approach:</strong> The type of analysis is through a retrospective and exploratory bibliometric study. The analysis materials were scientific articles and a training manual published between 2000 and 2020, registered by Scopus, Emerald insight and Dialnet, using “tourism awareness” as the keyword.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> When considering the three senses in which tourism awareness ought to operate, it is concluded that studies are more focused on the relationship and contact of the host community with the tourist. It is observed that four out of six articles in this sense consider that education, training, and government policies around tourism awareness should be developed in a better way in the destinations, in order to be an element that contributes to the development of communities and reduces poverty in developing countries.</p> <p><strong>Study limitations / implications:</strong> It is considered a limitation not to include thesis dissertations.</p> <p><strong>Findings / conclusions:</strong> It is necessary to make visible the importance of tourism awareness as a local development strategy for communities, in addition to including tourism awareness on the part of tourists.</p> M.I. Rosas-Jaco S.X. Almeraya-Quintero L.G. Guajardo-Hernández Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-10-14 2020-10-14 13 9 10.32854/agrop.v13i9.1750 Agronomic evaluation of corn (Zea mays L.) genotypes in the warm dry region of Chiapas, Mexico <p><strong>Objective</strong>. To evaluate the agronomic behavior of corn (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) experimental genotypes in three contrasting environments in the Central region of Chiapas, Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Design / methodology / approach</strong>. The experiments took place during the 2016 spring-summer agricultural cycle at Francisco Villa, Villaflores (730 m); San Luis, Suchiapa (600 m) and Ocozocoautla (800 m), at the Central region in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. At the three assessed sites, the climate is warm subhumid with rains in summer and intra-stival drought during the second half of July and the first half of August. The genotypes XT-5614, XT-3402, XT-5610, XT-5612, XT-5627, and BG7415W from the Biogene Company were evaluated, which are used in commercial crops at the Center of Chiapas. All genotypes showed viability greater than 90%. Three experimental sites were evaluated, in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The experimental unit consisted of four 5 m long rows 0.8 m apart. The useful plot was formed by two central furrows. The evaluated variables were: days to male flowering (DMF), days to female flowering (DFF), plant height (PH), cob height (CH), cob length (CL), cob diameter (CD), rows per cob (RC), grains per row and grain yield (YLD) at 14% moisture. These were analyzed with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and for the genotype x environment interaction (GEI) the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model (AMMI) were used, with the SAS statistical software and the GEA-R software.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The combined analysis of variance detected differences between genotypes (G) for most of the variables except in grains per row. and days to male and female flowering; there were significant differences between environments (A) for all variables, while for the GEI, there were significant differences for the number of rows per cob. The CV was 1.26 (DFF) at 10% (YLD), which indicates an acceptable control (&lt;20%) of the experimental variability. The results indicated genetic variation between evaluated genotypes, which allows the selection of the most outstanding ones. The evaluation environments showed differential effects and this condition is necessary for the evaluation of germplasm for a genetic improvement process.</p> <p><strong>Study limitations/implications</strong>: Cob height registered acceptable values given that short plants favor rotting in hot climates when weeds are present before harvest. The flowering of the genotypes was considered acceptable and was earlier (55 d) at the Suchiapa site.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions</strong>: Among the assessed genotypes there were significant differences for grain yield, plant height, cob height, cob length and the number of rows; the genotype-by-environment interaction was not significant. The XT 5627 and XT 5610 genotypes showed higher stability, and the former showed higher grain yield. The highest yields were recorded in the environment from Francisco Villa, Villaflores, at the Frailesca region, Chiapas.</p> Jesús Martínez-Sánchez Néstor Espinosa-Paz Pedro Cadena-Iñiguez Rafael Ariza-Flores Robertony Camas-Gómez Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-10-14 2020-10-14 13 9 10.32854/agrop.v13i9.1819 Quality and Yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil under hydroponic cultivation <p><strong>Objective</strong>: to assess the production of basil (<em>Ocimum basilicum</em> L.) grown in a greenhouse under open hydroponic system, using <em>tezontle </em>(volcanic gravel) as substrate.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: three planting densities were evaluated: D1, D2 and D3 (14, 28 and 71 plants m<sup>-2</sup>, respectively) and two concentrations of Steiner nutrient solution (S1: 100%, and S2: 50%).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: the highest values for fresh and dry weight of the aerial part, were the treatments S1 D1, S1 D2 and S2 D1. With S1 D1 the largest leaf area was obtained. Dry matter obtained was 14.03 mg g<sup>-1</sup> of essential oil.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: the use of hydroponics with an increase in sowing density can generate up to 70.21 t ha<sup>-1</sup>.</p> Luz A. Guerrero-Lagunes Lucero del Mar Ruiz-Posadas María de las N. Rodríguez-Mendoza Marcos Soto-Hernández Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-08-24 2020-08-24 13 9 10.32854/ Design of a HACCP Plan for Vacuum-Packed Beef Cuts <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To elaborate a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan for the process of vacuum-packed beef cuts, in a Federal Inspection Type (FIT) meat processor located in eastern Estado de México, with the aim of improving its conditions of hygiene and innocuousness.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approximation:</strong> The activities performed in the business were revised applying the HACCP methodology and the dangers identified were analyzed, to determine whether the danger found was significant for the innocuousness of the food, finally concluding if it represented, or not, a critical control point (CCP).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A CCP was identified in the phase of metal detection, the dangers identified were the passing of metal shards from the transport rails, pieces of knives or saws, and pieces of needles from prior steps in the process.</p> <p><strong>Study limitations/implications:</strong> Documentation about case studies of beef cuts, as well as about management of their CCP is limited.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> The CCP1 Metal Detection is a control measure that the business performs; however, under analysis, there was evidence of an opportunity to improve the current operation, which is why the adaptation of registry formats that could allow monitoring and controlling the CCP was proposed.</p> Lucero Isaura Almeraya-Soberanes Lenin G Guajardo- Hernández Silvia Xochilt Almeraya-Quintero Mario Salvador González-Rodríguez Sonia Almeraya-Soberanes Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-10-14 2020-10-14 13 9 10.32854/agrop.v13i9.1725 Bioethanol production from agro-industrial Saccharum spp. residues: using Trametes versicolor (L.: Fr.) Quél in simple fermentation and saccharification processes <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To quantify the production of total and reducing sugars, as well as bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse (<em>Saccharum </em>spp.) pretreated with <em>Trametes versicolor</em> and 20 % (P/V) NaOH solution.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>An experimental 2<sup>K</sup> design was used to determine the effect of the volume of inoculant added to wild sugarcane bagasse samples (Factor A; 8 and 10 mL), its incubation period (Factor B; 18 and 24 d), and the bagasse weight/ volume of 20% (P/V) NaOH solution (Factor C; 5 and 20%(P/V), on the production of total and reducing sugars during simple saccharification. ANOVA analysis was used to evaluate the significance of these factors. The production of bioethanol was achieved via simple fermentation using a commercial strain of <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>It was found that the highest yields of reducing and total sugars were obtained with the use of 10 mL of inoculant solution and with an 18 d incubation period during biological pretreatments. The ANOVA analysis suggests that Factors A and B influence the release of sugars, while Factor C was irrelevant. The bioethanol production registered concentrations of up to 7.3 mg mL<sup>-1</sup> for every 5 g of sugarcane bagasse.</p> <p><strong>Limitations/implications: </strong>This study focused on how treatments using <em>T. versicolor</em> and NaOH affected the release of sugars. Optimization of bioethanol production needs to be considered subsequently in another study.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> The results have implications for the use of pretreatments for the production of bioethanol from agro-industrial residues.</p> Edna Xochitl Figueroa Rosales Erendira Aguilar Huerta Manuel Jesús Granados Baeza Alfredo Quinto Hernández Derechos de autor 2020 AgroProductividad 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 13 9 10.32854/agrop.v13i9.1738